Forty-five 9- to 14-year-old children with learning disabilities whose WISC Full Scale IQs fell within the range of 86–114 were divided into three groups on the basis of their patterns of reading, spelling, and arithmetic achievement. Group 1 was composed of children who were uniformly deficient in reading, spelling, and arithmetic; children in Group 2 were relatively adept at arithmetic as compared to their performance in reading and spelling; Group 3 was composed of children whose reading and spelling performances were average or above, but whose arithmetic performance was relatively deficient. The performances of these children on 16 dependent measures were compared. The performances of Groups 1 and 2 were superior to that of Group 3 on measures of visual-perceptual and visual-spatial abilities; Group 3 performed at a superior level to that of Groups 1 and 2 on measures of verbal and auditory-perceptual abilities. The results are discussed in terms of the relationships between varying patterns of academic abilities and patterns of brain-related behaviors, and the nature of the neuropsychological abilities that may limit performance on arithmetic calculation tasks.
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The research reported herein was supported, in part, under Grant #195 of the Ontario Mental Health Foundation. Funds were also supplied by Windsor Western Hospital Centre.
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Rourke, B.P., Finlayson, M.A.J. Neuropsychological significance of variations in patterns of academic performance: Verbal and visual-spatial abilities. J Abnorm Child Psychol 6, 121–133 (1978). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00915788