The experimental oceanographic satellite Seasat-A
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A Seasat-A Project was conceived and is being implemented to establish the utility of an array of microwave instruments in space for oceanic research and marine technology. The instruments include: a short-pulse radar altimeter, a wind-field scatterometer, an experimental synthetic-aperture imaging radar, a scanning multifrequency microwave radiometer, and a supporting visual and infrared radiometer. All weather, day-night measurements of sea-surface temperature, surface wind speed and direction, sea state and directional wave spectra will be made, the latter over limited areas and times because of operational limitations on the synthetic-aperture-radar instrument. Highly precise (&<0.1 m) range information from the radar altimeter, in combination with an accurate satellite emphemeris, will be used to infer dynamic departures of sea level from the marine geoid produced by tides, currents, and storm surges. Sea ice will be observed by the synthetic-aperture radar, radar altimeter and the scanning multifrequency microwave radiometer, with particular emphasis on demonstrating their capability to determine polar ice coverage, dynamics and navigability.
The satellite will be launched into a high-inclination (108 °), non-sun-synchronous, nearly-circular 800 km orbit in May of 1978. The orbit is such that a dense network traced out by the subsatellite point (18.5-km equatorial separation of ascending orbits) will be obtained in 152 days for geodesy. The satellite is designed for a minimum lifetime of one year; with expendables, including orbit adjust capability, for three.
All data, except those obtained from the synthetic-aperture radar, will be collected globally, and returned, as measured, first by a 25 kbps data stream, and then after playback at a rate of 800 kbps from the on-board tape recorder. Synthetic-aperture radar data will be returned in real time only, over a 20-MHz analog telemetry link. We expect that satellite data will be distributed through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Environmental Data Service. Processed data are expected to be generally available through this agency within a very few months of launch, following preliminary assessment of instrument operation and evaluation of performance.
KeywordsRadar Surface Wind Speed Microwave Radiometer Radar Altimeter Infrared Radiometer
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