Monatshefte für Chemie / Chemical Monthly

, Volume 106, Issue 6, pp 1235–1257 | Cite as

The acceptor number — A quantitative empirical parameter for the electrophilic properties of solvents

  • Ulrich Mayer
  • Viktor Gutmann
  • Wolfgang Gerger
Anorganische, Struktur- und Physikalische Chemie

Abstract

The electrophilic properties of 34 solvents have been characterized by the Acceptor Number (AN) which has been derived from31P-n.m.r. measurements of triethylphosphine oxide dissolved in the respective solvents. Relationships are found between the acceptor numbers and theZ-values,ET-values andY-values, as well as the free energies of solvation of anions and the redox potentials of the hexacyanoferrate(III)—hexacyanoferrrate(II) system in different solvents. The new parameter provides—together with the donor number—a useful guide in choosing the most appropriate solvent for a given reaction.

Keywords

Oxide Physical Chemistry Analytical Chemistry Free Energy Inorganic Chemistry 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    V. Gutmann, Chemische Funktionslehre. Wien-New York: Springer. 1971.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    V. Gutmann, Topics in Current Chem.27, 59 (1972).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. Gutmann andR. Schmid, Coord. Chem. Rev.12, 263 (1974).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    U. Mayer andV. Gutmann, Advan. Inorg. Chem. Radiochem.17, 189 (1975).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    U. Mayer, Pure Appl. Chem.49, 291 (1975).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    V. Gutmann andE. Wychera, Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett.2, 257 (1966).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    V. Gutmann, Coordination Chemistry in Non-aqueous Solutions. Wien-New York: Springer. 1968.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Alexander, A. J. Parker, J. H. Sharp, andW. E. Waghorne, J. Amer. Chem. Soc.94, 1148 (1972).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. G. Cox, G. R. Hedwig, A. J. Parker, andD. W. Watts, Austral. J. Chem.27, 477 (1974).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    V. Gutmann, G. Gritzner, andK. Danksagmüller, Inorg. Chim. Acta (in the press).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. H. Erlich andA. I. Popov, J. Amer. Chem. Soc.93, 5620 (1971).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Spaziante andV. Gutmann, Inorg. Chim. Acta5, 273 (1971).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. A. Williams, Presented at the 9th Organosilicon Symposium in Cleveland, Ohio, April 5, 1975, private communication.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    W. Gerger, U. Mayer, andV. Gutmann, in preparation.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    F. Hein andH. Hecker, Chem. Ber.93, 1339 (1960).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. Cahours andA. W. Hofmann, Ann. Chem.104, 23 (1857).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. L. Gefter, Zhur. Obsh. Khim.28, 1338 (1958); Chem. Abstr.52, 19999d.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. A. Riddick andW. B. Bunger, Techniques of Chemistry (A. Weissberger, ed.), Vol. II. New York-Toronto: Wiley-Interscience. 1970.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. BAlasubramanian andC. N. R. Rao, Spectrochim. Acta18, 1337 (1962).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Olsen, Acta Chem. Scand.24, 3081 (1970).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    U. Mayer andV. Gutmann, Structure and Bonding12, 113 (1972).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. A. Creighton andK. M. Thomas, J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans.1972, 403.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Normant, Angew. Chem.79, 1029 (1967).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ch. Reichardt, Lösungsmittel-Effekte in der organischen Chemie. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie. 1969.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    E. M. Kosower, J. Amer. Chem. Soc.80, 3253 (1958).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. Dimroth, Ch. Reichardt, T. Siepmann, andF. Bohlmann, Ann. Chem.661, 1 (1963).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    E. Grunwald andS. Winstein, J. Amer. Chem. Soc.70, 846 (1948).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. G. Smith, A. H. Fainberg, andS. Winstein, J. Amer. Chem. Soc.83, 618 (1961).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    E. M. Kosower, J. Amer. Chem. Soc.80, 3261, 3267 (1958).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ch. Reichardt andK. Dimroth, Topics in Current Chem.11, 1 (1968/69).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    U. Mayer andV. Gutmann, Mh. Chem.101, 912 (1970).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    V. Gutmann andU. Mayer, Mh. Chem.100, 2048 (1969).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    V. Gutmann, Coord. Chem. Rev., submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    V. Gutmann, Coord. Chem. Rev.15, 207 (1975).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    V. Gutmann, Structure and Bonding15, 141 (1973).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. D. Ross andM. M. Labes, J. Amer. Chem. Soc.79, 4155 (1957).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. H. Fainberg andS. Winstein, J. Amer. Chem. Soc.78, 2770 (1956).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    U. Mayer, Mh. Chem., to be published.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    E. R. Swart andL. J. Le Roux, J. Chem. Soc.1957, 406.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. J. Delpuech, Tetrahedron Letters25, 2111 (1965).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ch. K. Jørgensen, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem.24, 1587 (1962).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    G. E. Maciel andJ. J. Natterstad, J. Chem. Phys.42, 2752 (1965).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    D. J. Cram, B. Rickborn, C. A. Kingsbury, andP. Haberfield, J. Amer. Chem. Soc.83, 3678 (1961).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. Miller andA. J. Parker, J. Amer. Chem. Soc.83, 117 (1961).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    A. J. Parker, J. Chem. Soc.1961, 1328.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    A. J. Parker, Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry (V. Gold, ed.), Vol. 5, p. 173. London-New York: Academic Press. 1967.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrich Mayer
    • 1
  • Viktor Gutmann
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Gerger
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Anorganische Chemie der Technischen Universität WienWienAustria

Personalised recommendations