Advertisement

Initiation of liquid explosives by cavitation

  • V. E. Gordeev
  • A. I. Serbinov
  • Ya. K. Troshin
Article

Abstract

It is known that in some circumstances liquid explosives can be initiated with unexpected ease, and in other circumstances only with great diffculty.

Thus, Winning [1] has shown that nitroglycerine (NG) free of gaseous inclusions and poured into a vessel so as to leave no wall surfaces free of liquid is not exploded even by the action of a fairly strong shock wave from a detonator immersed in the NG.

On the other hand, in handling liquid explosives there have been quite a few cases in which relatively weak vibrations or impacts have led to unexpected explosions, which have sometimes had serious consequences. For example, a British report [2] describes an unfortunate accident that resulted from dropping a polyethylene bottle containing NG. Upon hitting the ground the NG exploded.

The initiation of explosion by “hot spots” resulting from the adiabatic compression of gaseous inclusions even before the arrival of the shock wave has been reliably demonstrated in numerous experiments [1, 3]. However, some cases of initiation of liquid explosives simply cannot be attributed to the heating of such gaseous inclusions, since in these cases the adiabatic compression temperatures of the gas are so small that it is not possible to talk of a “hot spot. “Such puzzling cases include, for example, the above-mentioned explosion of NG in a polyethylene bottle. In other experiments [4] the role of gaseous inclusions has been completely eliminated by first subjecting the liquid explosive to a constant high pressure. This so reduced the degree of compression of the gaseous inclusions by a weak shock that strong heating of the gas in the bubbles, if any were present in the liquid explosives, was completely excluded. Nonetheless, there was no reduction in the sensitivity of the explosive to weak shocks.

In attempting to explain such puzzling cases it is usually pointed out that explosion can be initiated by cavitation [1, 5], which may develop in a liquid even as a result of a weak impact or vibration. So far, however, no one has offered any direct experimental evidence of the possibility of cavitational initiation of explosion in liquid explosives. The object of our research was to fill that gap.

Keywords

Shock Wave Explosive Cavitation Nitroglycerine Polyethylene Bottle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    M. A. Cook, “Explosiveness of composite rocket propellants,” collection: New Directions in Cryogenic Engineering [Russian translation], Izd. Mir, 1966.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. M. Inspectors of Explosives Annual Report. Chenu Trade J. and Chem. Engr., vol. 154, no. 3998, 1964.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bowden and Yoffe, Initiation and Development of Explosion in Solids and Liquids [Russian translation], IL, 1955.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. V. Dimza, “Effect of pressure on the initiation of detonation in liquid explosives,” PMTF, no. 6, 1962.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. H. Johansson et. al., “The initiation of liquid explosives by shock and the importance of liquid breakup,” Proc. Roy. Soc., A, vol. 246, no. 1245, 1958.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Sette and F. Wanderling, “Nucleation by cosmic rays in ultrasonic cavitation,” Phys. Rev., vol. 125, no, 2, 1962.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. S. Dubovik, Photographic Registration of High-Speed Processes [in Russian], Izd-vo Nauka, 1964.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    F. P. Bowden and D. Tabor, The Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Oxford, 1950.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lord Rayleigh, “On the pressure developed in a liquid during the collapse of a spherical cavity,” Philos. Mag., vol. 34, no. 200, 1917.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. D. Ivany and F. W. Hammit, Cavitation Bubble Collapse in Viscous Compressible liquids-Numerical Analysis, Amer. Soc. Mech, Engrs., vol. 87, no. 4, 1965.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Gallant, “Untersuchung über Kavitationsblasen, “Öster Ing. Z., vol. 5, no. 3, 1962.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Hickling, “Effects of thermal conduction in sonoluminescence,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer, vol. 35, no. 7, 1963.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    W. Güth, “Zur Entstehung der Stosswellen bei der Kavitation,” Acustica, vol. 6, no. 6, 1956.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. D. Jarman and K. J. Taylor, “Light flashes and shocks from a cavitating flow,” Brit. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 16, no. 15, 1965.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. I. Soloukhin, “The bubble mechanism of shock ignition in a liquid,” DAN SSSR, vol. 136, no. 2, 1961.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    I. M. Voskoboinikov, A. V. Dubovik, and V. K. Bobolev, “Low-velocity detonation of nitroglycerine,” DAN SSSR, vol. 161, no. 5, 1965.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. W. Campbell, W. C. Davis, J. R. Travis, and J. B. Ramsay, Shock Initiation of Detonation in Liquid Explosives, Phys. Fluids, vol. 4, no. 4, 1961.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Faraday Press, Inc. 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. E. Gordeev
    • 1
  • A. I. Serbinov
    • 1
  • Ya. K. Troshin
    • 1
  1. 1.Moscow

Personalised recommendations