The moon and the planets

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 45–52 | Cite as

Negative ions in the ionospheres of planetary bodies without atmospheres

  • A. Wekhof
Article

Abstract

Negative ions may be formed in the ionospheres of Mercury, the Moon and Jupiter's satellites with densities about a few % of the ionospheric electron density. The negative ions are produced by three mechanisms at the planetary surface: charge inversion during energetic proton scattering, with simultaneous secondary negative ion emission, and micrometeorite impacts. The density and distribution of negative ions around planetary bodies depends primarily upon the negative ion life-times determined by photodetachment by solar radiation.

Keywords

Radiation Atmosphere Mercury Solar Radiation Planetary Surface 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, C. W.: 1973,Astrophysical Quantities 3rd ed., Univ. of London, The Athlone Press.Google Scholar
  2. Behrisch, R., Eckstein, W., Meischner, P., Scherzer, B. M. U., and Verbeek, H.: 1975,Atomic Collisions in Solids ed. by S. Datz, B. R. Appleton, and C. D. Moak, V. 1, pp. 315–329, Plenum Press, USA.Google Scholar
  3. Benninghoven, A.: 1973,Appl. Physics 5, Springer-Verlag, pp. 3–16.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, W. L., Lanzerotti, L. J., Poate J. M., and Augustiniak, W. M.: 1978,Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1027–1030.Google Scholar
  5. Chernjak, Yu. and Wekhof, A.: 1979,J. Phys. D.: Appl. Phys. 12, pp. 539–555.Google Scholar
  6. Coradini, M., and Wekhof, A.: 1980,The Moon and Planets 22, pp. 190–199.Google Scholar
  7. Dalmann, B. K., Grün, E., Kissel, J., and Dietzel, H.: 1977,Planetary and Space Sci. 25, pp. 135–147.Google Scholar
  8. Eichhorn, G.: 1978,Planetary and Space Sci. 26, pp. 469–471.Google Scholar
  9. Fechtig, H., Grün, E., and Morfill, G.: 1979,Planetary and Space Sci. 27, pp. 511–531.Google Scholar
  10. Fogel', Ya. M., Slabospitskii, R. P., and Rastrepin, A. B.: 1960,Sov. Phys-Tech. Phys. 5, pp. 58–65.Google Scholar
  11. Fürstenau, N., Hillenkamp, F., and Nitsche, R.: 1979,Intern. J. of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Phys. 31, pp. 85–91.Google Scholar
  12. Hiskes, J. R. and Schneider, P. J.: 1980,Report on Second Intern. Symposium on the Production and Neutralization of Negative Hydrogen Ions and Beams, Oct. 6, Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, N.Y., Preprints UCRL-85015 and 84261 of Lawrence Livermore Lab., Oct. 1, CA, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  13. Hoffman, M.-J., Fechtig, H., Grün, E., and Kissel, J.: 1975,Planetary and Space Sci. 23, pp. 985–991.Google Scholar
  14. Humes, D. H.: 1976, inJupiter ed. by T. Gehrels, pp. 1052–1068, The Univ. of Arizona Press, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Massey, H.: 1976,Negative Ions Cambridge Univ. Press, Great Britain.Google Scholar
  16. McDaniel, E. W.: 1964,Collision Phenomena in Ionized Gasses London.Google Scholar
  17. McDonnell, J. A. M., Ashworth, D. G., Flavill, R. P., and Jennison, R. C.: 1972,Proc. 3rd Lunar Sci. Conf. 3, pp. 2755–2765.Google Scholar
  18. Ness, N. F., Behannon, K. W., Lefppin, R. P., Whane, T. C., and Schatten, K. H.,Science 185, p. 151.Google Scholar
  19. Van Allen, J. A.: 1976, inJupiter ed. by T. Gehrels, pp. 928–960, The Univ. of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  20. Verbeek, H., Eckstein, W., and Datz, S.: 1976,J. Appl. Phys. 47, pp. 1785–1789.Google Scholar
  21. Vondrak, R. R., Freemen, J. W., and Linderman, R.: 1975,Proc. 5th Lunar Sci. Conf. 3, pp. 2945–2954.Google Scholar
  22. Wallance, L.: 1976, inJupiter, ed. by T. Gehrels, pp. 284–303, The Univ. of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  23. Wekhof, A.: 1980,The Moon and Planets 22, pp. 185–189.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Co. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Wekhof
    • 1
  1. 1.Samuel Silver Space Sciences LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations