Zeitschrift für Vererbungslehre

, Volume 94, Issue 1, pp 67–79 | Cite as

On the relationship between host-cell reactivation and UV-reactivation in UV-inactivated phages

  • Walter Harm
Article

Summary

Host-cell reactivation (HCR) and UV-reactivation (UVR) were studied in phage T1, T3 and λ, using as host bacteriaE. coli B, C, andK12S, as well as their non-hostreactivating mutantsBs−1 (Ellisonet al. 1960),C syn(Rörschet al. 1962), andK12S hcr. The experiments gave further support to the idea that HCR is an enzymatic process. It repairs about 80 to 90 percent of otherwise lethal UV-lesions not only in phage DNA, but also in bacterial DNA. Thehcr mutant isolated fromK12S for the purpose of this investigation, and thesyn mutant of ColiC show a very small extent of HCR; they are not completely deficient for the HCR-enzyme.

A correlation exists between the occurrence of HCR and UVR. UVR is absent in those cases where no HCR is observed. In systems with residual HCR-activity (hcr andsyn cells) UVR is less pronounced and has its maximum at lower UV-doses than in systems with full HCR-activity. UVR occurs also in unirradiated host-reactivating cells, if a large number of additional UV-lesions is introduced by means of superinfecting homologous phage. This effect is not observed in non-hostreactivating strains. The hypothesis is discussed that UVR is not a specific repair phenomenon by itself, but is the result of inhibition of cellular processes tending to decrease the survival.

Keywords

Cellular Process Small Extent Enzymatic Process Specific Repair Homologous Phage 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, M. H.: Bacteriophages, pp. 443–522. New York: Interscience 1959.Google Scholar
  2. Djordjevic, B., andW. Szybalsky: Genetics of human cell lines. III. Incorporation of 5-bromo- and 5-iododesoxyuridine into the deoxyribonucleic acid of human cells and its effect on radiation sensitivity. J. exp. Med.112, 509–531 (1960).Google Scholar
  3. Ellison, S. A., R. R. Feiner andR. F. Hill: A host effect on bacteriophage survival after ultraviolet irradiation. Virology11, 294–296 (1960).Google Scholar
  4. Garen, A., andN. D. Zinder: Radiological evidence for partial genetic homology between bacteriophage and host bacteria. Virology1, 347–376 (1955).Google Scholar
  5. Greer, S.: Studies on ultraviolet irradiation ofEscherichia coli containing 5-bromouracil in its DNA. J. gen. Microbiol.22, 618–634 (1960).Google Scholar
  6. Harm, W.: Mutants of phage T4 with increased sensitivity to ultraviolet. Virology19, 66–71 (1963).Google Scholar
  7. —: Repair of lethal UV-damage in phage DNA. In: “Repair from genetic radiation damage and differential radiosensitivity in germ cells”, Ed.F. H. Sobels (in press) London: Pergamon Press 1962.Google Scholar
  8. —, andB. Hillebrandt: A non-photoreactivable mutant ofE. coli B. Photochem. and Photobiol.1, 271–272 (1962).Google Scholar
  9. Hill, R. F.: A radiation sensitive mutant ofEscherichia coli. Biochim. biophys. Acta (Amst.)30, 636–637 (1958).Google Scholar
  10. —, andE. Simson: A study of radiosensitive and radioresistent mutants ofEscherichia coli strainB. J. gen. Microbiol.24, 1–14 (1961).Google Scholar
  11. Howard-Flanders, P., R. P. Boyce, E. Simson andL. Theriot: A genetic locus inE. coli K12 that controls the reactivation of UV-photoproducts associated with thymine in DNA. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)48, 2109–2115 (1962).Google Scholar
  12. Jacob, F., andE. L. Wollman: Etude génétique d'un bactériophage tempéréd'Escherichia coli. — III. Effet du rayonnement ultraviolet sur la récombination génétique. Ann. Inst. Pasteur88, 724–749 (1955).Google Scholar
  13. Kellenberger, G., W. Arber andE. Kellenberger: Eigenschaften UV-bestrahlter λ-Phagen. Z. Naturforsch.14b, 615–629 (1959).Google Scholar
  14. —,M. L. Zichichi andJ. Weigle: Mutations affecting the density of bacteriophage λ. Nature (Lond.)187, 161–162 (1960).Google Scholar
  15. Luria, S. E., andR. Dulbecco: Genetic recombination leading to production of active bacteriophage from ultraviolet bacteriophage particles. Genetics34, 93–125 (1949).Google Scholar
  16. Opara-Kubinska, Z., Z. Lorkiewicz andW. Szybalski: Genetic transformation studies. II. Radiation sensitivity of halogen labeled DNA. Biochim. biophys. Res. Commun.4, 288–291 (1961).Google Scholar
  17. Otsuji, N., andS. Okubo: Reactivation of ultraviolet- and nitrous acid-inactivated phages by host cells. Virology12, 607–609 (1960).Google Scholar
  18. Rörsch, A., A. Edelman andJ. A. Cohen: The gene-controlled radiation sensitivity inEscherichia coli. Manuscript (1962).Google Scholar
  19. Rupert, C. S.: Photoreactivation of transforming DNA by an enzyme from baker's yeast. J. gen. Physiol.43, 573–595 (1960).Google Scholar
  20. Sauerbier, W.: The influence of 5-bromodeoxyuridine substitution on UV-sensitivity, host-cell reactivation, and photoreactivation in T1 and P22H5. Virology15, 465–472 (1961).Google Scholar
  21. —: Evidence for a nonrecombinational mechanism of host cell reactivation of phage. Virology16, 398–404 (1962a).Google Scholar
  22. —: The bacterial mechanism reactivating UV-irradiated phage in the dark (host cell reactivation). Z. Vererb.-Lehre93, 220–228 (1962b).Google Scholar
  23. Stahl, F. W., J. M. Crasemann, L. Okun, E. Fox andC. Laird: Radiation sensitivity of bacteriophage containing 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Virology13, 98–104 (1961).Google Scholar
  24. Tessman, E. S.: Growth and mutation of phage T1 on ultraviolet-irradiated host cells. Virology2, 679–688 (1956).Google Scholar
  25. Weigle, J. J.: Induction of mutations in a bacterial virus. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)39, 628–636 (1953).Google Scholar
  26. —, andR. Dulbecco: Induction of mutations in bacteriophage T3 by ultra-violet light. Experientia (Basel)9, 272 (1953).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1963

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Harm
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of GeneticsUniversity of KölnKöln-LindenthalGermany

Personalised recommendations