Instructional Science

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 207–232 | Cite as

A framework for the study of hypertext

  • James E. Gall
  • Michael J. Hannafin


This paper presents a framework for the study of hypertext. First, an historical perspective on the evolution of hypertext is provided. Next, hypertext system components are presented and relevant psychological and pedagogical issues are analyzed. Finally a framework for the study of hypertext, with implications for theory, research, and development, is described.


System Component Historical Perspective Pedagogical Issue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alessandrini, K. (1984). Pictures and adult learning.Instructional Science 13(1): 63–77.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J.R. (1980).Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications. New York: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  3. Bereiter, C. (1991). Implications of connectionism for thinking about rules.Educational Researcher 20(3): 10–16.Google Scholar
  4. Berryman, G. (1984).Notes on Graphic Design and Visual Communication. Los Altos, CA: William Kaufmann.Google Scholar
  5. Binder, C. (1989). Hypertext design issues.Performance Improvement Quarterly 2(3): 16–33.Google Scholar
  6. Bush, V. (1945). As we may think.Atlantic Monthly 176(1): 101–108.Google Scholar
  7. Carroll, J.M. & Rosson, M.B. (1987). Paradox of the active user, in J.M. Carroll, ed.,Interfacing Thought: Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  8. Cates, W.M. (1992). Fifteen principles for designing more effective instructional hypermedia/ multimedia products.Educational Technology 32(12): 5–11.Google Scholar
  9. Chung, J. & Reigeluth, C. (1992). Instructional prescriptions for learner control.Educational Technology 32(10); 14–20.Google Scholar
  10. Conklin, J. (1987). Hypertext: An introduction and survey.Computer 20(9): 17–41.Google Scholar
  11. Crane, G. & Mylonas, E. (1988). The Perseus Project: An interactive curriculum on Classical Greek civilization.Educational Technology 28(11): 25–32.Google Scholar
  12. De Young, M.J. (1991).Background and Analysis of Dr. King's ‘Letter.’ Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  13. Dillon, A. (1991). Readers' models of text structures: The case of academic articles.International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 35: 913–925.Google Scholar
  14. Duchastel, P. (1990). Examining cognitive processing in hypermedia usage.Hypermedia 2(3): 221–233.Google Scholar
  15. Edwards, D. & Hardman, L. (1989). ‘Lost in hyperspace’: Cognitive mapping and navigation in a hypertext environment, in R. McAleese, ed.,Hypertext: Theory into Practice (pp. 105–125). London: BSP.Google Scholar
  16. Engelbart, D.C. (1963). A conceptual framework for the augmentation of man's intellect, inVistas in Information Handling, Vol. 1. London: Spartan.Google Scholar
  17. Gay, G., Trumbull, D. & Mazur, J. (1991). Designing and testing navigational strategies and guidance tools for a hypermedia program.Journal of Educational Computing Research 7: 189–202.Google Scholar
  18. Hannafin, M.J. (in press). Open-ended learning environments: Foundations, assumptions, and implications for automated design, in R. Tennyson, ed.,Perspectives on Automating Instructional Design. New York: Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  19. Hannafin, M.J. (1993).The Cognitive Implications of Computer-Based Learning Environments: A Conceptual Framework. Report to the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, AL/HRTC, Brooks AFB, TX.Google Scholar
  20. Heller, R. (1990). The role of hypermedia in education: A look at the research issues.Journal of Research on Computing in Education 22(4): 431–441.Google Scholar
  21. Jonassen, D.H. (1988). Designating structured hypertext and structuring access to hypertext.Educational Technology 28(11): 13–16.Google Scholar
  22. Jonassen, D.H. (1986). Hypertext principles for text and courseware design.Educational Psychologist 21(4): 269–292.Google Scholar
  23. Jonassen, D.H. & Wang, S. (1993). Acquiring structural knowledge from semantically structured hypertext.Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 20(1): 1–8.Google Scholar
  24. Kearsley, G. (1988). Authoring considerations for hypertext.Educational Technology 28(11): 21–24.Google Scholar
  25. Kinzie, M. & Berdel, R. (1990). Design and use of hypermedia systems.Educational Technology Research and Development 38(3): 61–68.Google Scholar
  26. Lanza, A. (1991). Some guidelines for the design of effective hypercourses.Educational Technology 31(10): 18–22.Google Scholar
  27. Lanza, A. & Roselli, T. (1991). Effect of hypertextual approach versus the structured approach on students’ achievement.Journal ofComputer Based Instruction 18(2): 48–50.Google Scholar
  28. Locatis, C, Letourneau, G. & Banvard, R. (1989). Hypermedia and instruction.Educational Technology Research and Design 37(4): 65–77.Google Scholar
  29. Marchionini, G. (1988). Hypermedia and learning: Freedom and chaos.Educational Technology 28(11): 8–12.Google Scholar
  30. Marchionini, G. & Shneiderman, B. (1988). Finding facts vs. browsing knowledge in hypertext systems.Computer 21(1): 70–80.Google Scholar
  31. Matlin, M. (1983).Cognition. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  32. Misanchuk, E. & Schwier, R. (1992). Representing interactive multimedia and hypermedia audit trails.Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 1: 355–372.Google Scholar
  33. Morris, S. (1987). New technologies in education.Education and Computing 3: 239–257.Google Scholar
  34. Nelson, T.H. (1988). Managing immense storage.Byte 13(1): 225–238.Google Scholar
  35. Nelson, W. & Palumbo, D. (1992). Learning, instruction, and hypermedia.Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 1: 287–299.Google Scholar
  36. Nielsen, J. (1990). The art of navigating through hypertext.Communications of the ACM 33: 296–310.Google Scholar
  37. Norman, D.A. (1982).Learning and Memory. New York: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  38. Norman, D.A. (1988). Infuriating by design.Psychology Today 22(3): 52–56.Google Scholar
  39. Park, I. & Hannafin, M.J. (1993). Empirically-based guidelines for the design of interactive multimedia.Educational Technology Research and Development 41(3): 63–85.Google Scholar
  40. Perkins, D. (1991). Technology meets constructivism: Do they make a marriage?Educational Technology 31(5): 18–23.Google Scholar
  41. Poison, P. & Lewis, C. (1990). Theory-based design for easily learned interfaces.Human-Computer Interaction 5: 191–220.Google Scholar
  42. Rao, U. & Turoff, M. (1990). Hypertext functionality: A theoretical framework.International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 2(4): 333–357.Google Scholar
  43. Raymond, D. & Tompa, F. (1988). Hypertext and the Oxford English Dictionary.Communications of the ACM 31(7): 871–879.Google Scholar
  44. Reeves, T. (1993). Pseudoscience in computer-based instruction: The case of learner control.Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 20(2).Google Scholar
  45. Reynolds, S.B. & Dansereau, D.F. (1990). The knowledge hypermap: An alternative to hypertext.Computers and Education 14(5): 409–416.Google Scholar
  46. Spiro, R.J., Feltovich, P.J., Jacobson, M.J. & Coulson, R.L. (1991). Cognitive flexibility, constructivism, and hypertext: Random access instruction for advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains.Educational Technology 31(5): 24–33.Google Scholar
  47. Spiro, R. & Jengh, J. (1990). Cognitive flexibility and hypertext: Theory and technology for the nonlinear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter, in D. Nix & R. Spiro, eds.,Cognition, Education and Multimedia: Explorations in High Technology (pp. 163–205). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  48. Steinberg, E. (1977). Review of student control in computer-assisted instruction.Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 3: 84–90.Google Scholar
  49. Steinberg, E. (1989). Cognition and learner control: A literature review, 1977–1988.Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 16:117–121.Google Scholar
  50. Tobin, K. & Dawson, G. (1992). Constraints to curriculum reform: Teachers and the myths of schooling.Educational Technology Research and Development 40: 81–92.Google Scholar
  51. Tripp, S.D. & Roby, W. (1990). Orientation and disorientation in a hypertext lexicon.Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 17(4): 120–124.Google Scholar
  52. Tsai, C. (1988). Hypertext: Technology, application, and research issues.Journal of Educational Technology Systems 17(1): 3–14.Google Scholar
  53. White, J.V. (1984).Using Charts and Graphs: 1000 Ideas for Visual Persuasion. New York: R.R. Bowker.Google Scholar
  54. Wilson, B.G. & Jonassen, D.H. (1989). Hypertext and instructional design: Some preliminary guidelines.Performance Improvement Quarterly 2(3): 34–49.Google Scholar
  55. Yankelovich, N., Haan, B. Meyrowitz, N. & Drucker, S. (1988). Intermedia: The concept and construction of a seamless information environment.Computer 21(1): 81–96.Google Scholar
  56. Yankelovich, N., Smith, K.E., Garret, N. & Meyrowitz, N. (1988). Issues in designing a hypermedia document system, in S. Ambron & K. Hooper, eds.,Interactive Multimedia (pp. 34–85). Microsoft: Redmond, WA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • James E. Gall
    • 1
  • Michael J. Hannafin
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Educational ExcellenceUnited States Air Force AcademyUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational ResearchFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations