Contemporary Family Therapy

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 75–88 | Cite as

Structural couplings between individual development and the epigenesis of family relations in schizophrenia: An eight-year follow-up

  • Matti Keinänen
  • Hilkka Virtanen
  • Anne Kaljonen


The aim of this research was to study individual development along with the epigenesis of family relations in an eight-year follow-up of schizophrenia. The five epigenetic phases described by Wynne are attachment/caregiving, communicating, joint problemsolving, mutuality, and intimacy. Results showed that the critical level of epigenesis was the communicating level; its resolution was statistically significantly connected to good prognosis concerning individual parameters. The mother-child dyad was usually epigenetically the most developed dyad in the family. We think this study gives a new paradigm for understanding connecting interconnections between individual and family dynamics in schizophrenia and valuable information for planning the integrated and need-specific treatment of schizophrenia and evaluating the course and prognosis of schizophrenia.


Schizophrenia Health Psychology Good Prognosis Social Issue Critical Level 
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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matti Keinänen
    • 1
  • Hilkka Virtanen
    • 2
  • Anne Kaljonen
    • 2
  1. 1.Health Care Center for StudentsTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Clinic of PsychiatryUniversity of TurkuFinland

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