Advertisement

Zeitschrift für Vererbungslehre

, Volume 96, Issue 2, pp 105–115 | Cite as

Gene function of heterozygotes in phage T4

  • R. Hertel
Article

Summary

Gene function of various T4-heterozygotes was tested. About half of the HETs containing wild type and anam-mutation disappeared under non-permissive conditions, if theam-defect concerned “early” functions. The same was found when phages, heterozygous forr+ and anrII-point-mutation, were adsorbed to K12 (λ). A much more extensive loss of HETs in K could be observed if anrIIA- and anrIIB-point-mutation (block-mutations showed different results) occurred together in a non-recombinant heterozygote. The findings provide evidence that one class of T4-heterozygotes has a heteroduplex DNA-structure.

Keywords

Gene Function Extensive Loss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature

  1. Benzer, S.: Fine structure of a genetic region in bacteriophage. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)41, 344–354 (1955).Google Scholar
  2. Bode, W.: Zur Natur der ausgedehnten Mutationen des Coliphagen T4. Z. Vererbungsl.94, 190–199 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Champe, S. P., andS. Benzer: Reversal of mutant phenotypes by 5-fluorouracil: an approach to nucleotide sequences in messenger RNA. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)48, 532–535 (1962).Google Scholar
  4. ——: An active cistron fragment. J. molec. Biol.4, 288–292 (1962a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chase, M., andA. D. Doermann: High negative interference over short segments of genetic structure of bacteriophage T4. Genetics43, 332–353 (1958).Google Scholar
  6. Crick, F. H. C., L. Barnett, S. Brenner, andR. J. Watts-Tobin: General nature of the genetic code for proteins. Nature (Lond.)192, 1227–1232 (1961).Google Scholar
  7. Crothers, D. M.: The kinetics of DNA denaturation. J. molec. Biol.9, 712–733 (1964).Google Scholar
  8. Davison, P. F., D. Freifelder, andB. W. Holloway: Interruptions in the polynucleotide strands in bacteriophage DNA. J. molec. Biol.8, 1–10 (1964).Google Scholar
  9. Doermann, A. D., andL. Boehner: An experimental analysis of bacteriophage heterozygotes. I. Mottled plaques from crosses involving six rII loci. Virology21, 551–567 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. ——: An experimental analysis of bacteriophage heterozygotes. II. Distribution in a density gradient. J. molec. Biol.10, 212–222 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Edgar, R. S.: Phenotypic properties of heterozygotes in the bacteriophage T4. Genetics43, 235–248 (1958).Google Scholar
  12. Epstein, R. H., A. Bolle, C. M. Steinberg, E. Kellenberger, E. Boy de la Tour, R. Chevalley, R. S. Edgar, M. Susman, G. H. Denhardt, andA. Lielausis: physiological studies of conditional lethal mutants of bacteriophage T4D. Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. quant. Biol.28, 375–394 (1963).Google Scholar
  13. Garen, A.: Physiological effects of rII mutations in bacteriophage T4. Virology14, 151–163 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hershey, A., Hershey, D., andM. Chase: Genetic recombination and heterozygosis in bacteriophage. Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. quant. Biol.16, 471–479 (1951).Google Scholar
  15. Hertel, R.: The occurrence of three allelic markers in one particle of phage T4. Z. Vererbungsl.94, 436–441 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kellenberger, G., M. L. Zichichi, andH. T. Epstein: Heterozygosis and recombination of bacteriophage λ. Virology17, 44–55 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Krieg, D. R.: A study of gene action in ultraviolet-irradiated bacteriophage T4. Virology8, 80–98 (1959).Google Scholar
  18. Levinthal, C.: Recombination in phage T2: its relationship to heterozygosis and growth. Genetics39, 169–184 (1954).Google Scholar
  19. —: Bacteriophage genetics. In: The viruses (ed.F. M. Burnet andW. M. Staley), vol. 2, p. 281–317. New York and London: Academic Press 1959.Google Scholar
  20. Marmur, J., C. M. Greenspan, E. Palecek, F. M. Kahan, J. Levine, andM. Mandel: Specificity of the complementary RNA formed by Bacillus subtilis infected with bacteriophage SP8. Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. quant. Biol.28, 191–199 (1963).Google Scholar
  21. Meselson, M.: On the mechanism of genetic recombination between DNA molecules. J. molec. Biol.9, 734–745 (1964).Google Scholar
  22. Nomura, M., andS. Benzer: The nature of the “deletion” mutants in the rII region of phage T4. J. molec. Biol.3, 684–692 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Pratt, D., andG. S. Stent: Mutational heterozygotes in bacteriophages. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)45, 1507–1515 (1959).Google Scholar
  24. Sechaud, J., andG. Streisinger: Phenotypic expression of recombinants arising in phage-infected bacteria. Virology17, 387–393 (1962).Google Scholar
  25. Sechaud, J., andG. Streisinger, H. Lanford, H. Reinhold, andM. M. Stahl: The gross structure of the genome of phage T4. II. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.), (in press) (1965).Google Scholar
  26. Shalitin, C., andF. W. Stahl: Additional evidence for the existence of two different kinds of heterozygotes in phage T4. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.), (in press) (1965).Google Scholar
  27. Spiegelman, S., andM. Hayashi: The present status of the transfer of genetic information and its control. Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. quant. Biol.28, 161–181 (1963).Google Scholar
  28. Stahl, F. W.: The mechanics of inheritance. Englewood Cliffs (N. J.): Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1964.Google Scholar
  29. —,R. S. Edgar, andJ. Steinberg: The linkage map of bacteriophage T4. Genetics50, 539–552 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Stahl, F. W., H. Modersohn, B. E. Terzaghi, andJ. M. Crasemann: The genetic structure of complementation heterozygotes. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) (in press) (1965).Google Scholar
  31. Streisinger, G., M. M. Stahl, andJ. Emrich: The gross structure of the genome of phage T4. III. The frequency of terminal-redundancy-heterozygotes in genomes containing deletions. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) (in press) (1965).Google Scholar
  32. Studier, F. W.: Sedimentation studies of the size and shape of DNA. J. molec. Biol.11, 373–390 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Thomas jr.,C. A.: The organization of DNA in bacteriophage and bacteria. In: Molecular Genetics I (ed.J. H. Taylor), p. 113–151, New York: Academic Press 1963.Google Scholar
  34. —, andK. I. Berns: The utility of formaldehyde in stabilizing polynucleotide chains from bacteriophage DNA. J. molec. Biol.4, 309–312 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. —,T. C. Pinkerton, andI. Rubenstein: The structure and intramolecular density heterogeneity of the T2 phage DNA molecule. In: Informational Macromolecules (ed.Vogel, Bryson, Lampen), p. 89–106. New York and London: Academic Press 1963.Google Scholar
  36. Wittehouse, H. L. K.: A theory of crossing-over by means of hybrid deoxyribonucleic acid. Nature (Lond.)199, 1034–1040 (1963).Google Scholar
  37. Womack, F. C.: Studies on the structure and replication of the heterozygote in bacteriophage T4. Virology21, 232–241 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1965

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Hertel
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Genetik der Universität zu KölnKöln-Lindenthal

Personalised recommendations