Applied physics

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 205–215 | Cite as

Conductance noise investigations with four arbitrarily shaped and placed electrodes

  • L. K. J. Vandamme
  • W. M. G. van Bokhoven
Contributed Papers


A general relation is derived for the spectral noise density of the voltage between two arbitrarily shaped and placed sensor electrodes on a conductor, when a constant current or voltage is applied to another pair of arbitrarily shaped and placed driver electrodes. The general relation is based on the sensitivity calculation in linear electrical networks. The relation is elaborated for conductivity fluctuations due to 1/f noise by using empirical 1/f noise relations. The influence of spot radii of the sensor electrodes on the noise is demonstrated.

The theoretical results for 2 and 3-dimensional conductors are in agreement with our experimental results for carbon resistance sheets and on silicon and germanium in the resistivity range of 1Ωcm to 400Ωcm. The possibility of using the four-point probe for measuring the fluctuations in the resistivity has been demonstrated.




Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R.J.Hawkins, G.G.Bloodworth: Thin Solid Films8, 193 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.J.Hawkins: Current noise in field effect transistors; Ph. D. Thesis, University of Southampton (1970) p. 177Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.Hettich: Frequenz4, 14 (1950)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E.P.Honig: Phil. Res. Repts29, 253 (1974)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H.J.Butterweck: Phil. Res. Repts30, 316* (1975)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S.W.Director, R.A.Rohrer: IEEE Trans. CT-16, 318 (1969)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.Penfield, R.Spence, S.Duinker:Tellegen's Theorem and Electrical Networks, Research Monograph No. 58, M.I.T. Press Cambridge, Mass. (1970) pp. 79–100Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L.K.J.Vandamme: Appl. Phys11, 89 (1976)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    G.D.Monteath:Applications of the Electromagnetic Reciprocity Principle (Pergamon Press, Oxford 1973) pp. 1–14Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    F.N.Hooge Physica83B, 14 (1976)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L.K.J.Vandemme: Electrocomponent Science and Technology incorporating. Thin Films (in press)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W.M.G. van Bokhoven: Int. J. Circuit Theory and Applications (submitted)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E.Isaacson, H.B.Keller:Analysis of numerical methods (J. Wiley and Sons, New York 1966) pp. 442–452MATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    L.K.J.Vandame: Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology (1976) p. 36 and p. 100Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    H.Th.J.Tacken: Private communicationGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. K. J. Vandamme
    • 1
  • W. M. G. van Bokhoven
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations