Irrigation and Drainage Systems

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 129–141 | Cite as

Water requirements for salt control in rice schemes in the Senegal river delta and valley

  • Raes D. 
  • Deckers J. 
  • Diallo A. M. 


The paper estimates the water requirements for salt control in rice schemes located on saline soils in the Senegal river delta. When the fields are not cultivated, salts are transported to the top soil by capillary rise from the very saline and shallow ground water table. During the irrigation season, the large quantity of irrigation water adds additional salt to the fields. If the percolation rate of the soil is small, salts will have to be removed from the schemes by flushing the standing water from the fields when the salinity of the water reaches the threshold value of 1.5 ds m−1. The results indicate that if the schemes are located on the river banks (fondé), flushing at the beginning of the season and the percolation losses throughout the season may be sufficient to keep the salts out of the root zone. On the less permeable soils in the depressions (hollaldé), an extra flushing is required to evacuate enough salts from the fields during the irrigation season. In total about 2,300 m3 ha−1 of water may be needed for flushing. If flushing is not practised, the schemes have to be abandoned after a few years of cultivation due to build-up of soil salinity.

Key words

rice salinity Senegal water requirements 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abrol I.P., Yadav J.S.P. & Massoud P.I. 1988.Salt-affected soils and their management. FAO Soils Bulletin Nr. 39, Rome, Italy, 131 pp.Google Scholar
  2. ADRAO/WARDA. 1993. Rapport annuel de 1992. West Africa Rice Development Association, Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire. (in press).Google Scholar
  3. Deckers J., Raes D., Merckx R. & Diallo A. 1994. The fate of salic and thionic fluvisols under irrigated rice in the Senegal river delta. Pedologie, XLIII-3: 389–401.Google Scholar
  4. Hecq J. & Dugauquier F. 1990. Périmètres irrigués villageois en Afrique sahélienne. CTA, Wageningen, Pays-Bas. 234 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Jackson R.D. 1972. On the calculation of hydraulic conductivity.Soil Sci. Amer. Proc. 36: 380–382.Google Scholar
  6. Kunze R.J., Uehara G. & Graham K. 1968. Factors important in the calculation of hydraulic conductivity.Soil Sci. Amer. Proc. 32: 760–765.Google Scholar
  7. Le Brusq J.Y. 1980. Etude pédologique des cuvettes de la vallée du Lampsar. ORSTOM, Dakar, Senegal, 114 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Le Brusq J.Y. & Loyer J.Y. 1984. Evolution de la salinité des sols et des eaux en relation avec la riziculture submergée dans le delta du fleuve Senegal. ORSTOM, Centre de Dakar-Hann, Senegal, 29 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Loyer J.Y. 1989.Les sols salés de la basse vallée du fleuve Senegal. ORSTOM, Collection Etudes et Thèses, Paris, France. 137 pp.Google Scholar
  10. OMVS/USAID 1990.Rapport de synthèse hydrogéologique du delta du fleuve Senegal (Projet 625-0958). Rapport Final, Volume II. International Science and Technology Institute, Washington, USA. 76 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Raes D. & Deckers J. 1993.Les sols du delta du fleuve Senegal — Propriétés physiques et chimiques. SAED, Projet Gestion de l'Eau, Bulletin Technique Nr. 8, Saint-Louis, Senegal, 84 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Raes D. & Sy B. 1992.Analyse de la pluviométrie et de l'évapotranspiration dans la zone du delta du fleuve Senegal. SAED, Projet Gestion de l'Eau, Bulletin Technique Nr. 5, Saint-Louis, Senegal, 67 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Raes D., Sy B. & Feyen J. 1995. Water use in rice schemes in the Senegal river delta and valley.Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Systems (IRRI 337, accepted for publication).Google Scholar
  14. SAED. 1990. La SAED a 25 ans. SAED. Document de travail, Cellule Suivi et Evaluation, Saint-Louis, Senegal, 17 pp.Google Scholar
  15. SAED, 1993. Rapport et cartes de synthèse presentant les aménagements hydro-agricoles de la délégation de Dagana en novembre 1990. SAED, DAIH-DPDR, Saint-Louis, Senegal.Google Scholar
  16. Van Lavieren B. & Van Wetten J. 1988.Profil de l'environnement de la vallée du fleuve Senegal. Direction Général de la Coopération au Développement (DGIS), Pays-Bas, 159 pp.Google Scholar
  17. WARDA. 1992. Annual report from 1991. Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raes D. 
    • 1
  • Deckers J. 
    • 1
  • Diallo A. M. 
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Land and Water ManagementK.U. LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.SAEDSaint-LouisSenegal

Personalised recommendations