Advertisement

Aquatic Sciences

, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 76–86 | Cite as

The exceptional growth of the Arctic charr,Salvelinus alpinus (L.) in Lake Geneva

  • Jean-François Rubin
Article

Abstract

The growth rate of the Arctic charr,Salvelinus alpinus (L.), is exceptionally high in Lake Geneva; one of the highest every recorded. This can be explained by three factors: (1) the Arctic charr of Lake Geneva is the most southerly indigenous population in the world, (2) the trophic resources are important because of the eutrophication of the lake, (3) the fish density is low.

Key words

Sa velinus alpinus growth Lake Geneva latitude eutrophication fish density 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adalsteinsson, H., 1979. Size and food of Arctic char,Salvelinus alpinus, and Stickleback,Gasterosteus aculeatus, in Lake Myvatn. Oikos 32:228–231.Google Scholar
  2. Adalsteinsson, H. and H. O. Halfdanarson, 1983. Feeding of char in a shallow lake, NW-Iceland. Proceeding of the second ISACF workshop on Arctic char 1982:5–10.Google Scholar
  3. Andrews, C. W. and E. Lear, 1956. The biology of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.) in northern Labrador. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 13:843–860.Google Scholar
  4. Barbour, S. E. and S. M. Einarsson, 1987. Ageing and growth of charr,Salvelinus alpinus (L.), from three habitat types in Scotland. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 18:63–72.Google Scholar
  5. Behnke, R. J., 1972. The systematics of Salmonids fishes of recently glaciated lakes. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29:639–671.Google Scholar
  6. Brenner, T., 1980. The Arctic charr,Salvelinus alpinus salvelinus, in the prealpine Attersee. Austria. In Charrs, Salmonids of the genus Salvelinus (Balon, E. K., ed.), pp. 765–772. The Hague: Dr W. Junk.Google Scholar
  7. Brenner, T., 1984. The introduction of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus salvelinus) in Nordrhein Westfalen (Federal Republic of Germany). In Biology of the Arctic charr (Johnson, L. and B. L. Burns, eds), pp. 293–301. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.Google Scholar
  8. Carlander, K. D., 1969. Handbook of freshwater fishery biology. Iowa: The Iowa State University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Cipel, 1984. Le Léman, synthèse 1957–1982. Lausanne, 648 pages.Google Scholar
  10. Crettiez, J., 1906. La culture de l'omble-chevalier du lac Léman. Extraits des comptes rendus de l'association française pour l'avancement des Sciences. Congrès de Lyin 1906. Paris, 498–506.Google Scholar
  11. Dempson, J. B., 1984. Identification of anadromous Arctic charr stocks in coastal areas of Northern Labrador. In Biology of the Arctic charr (Johnson, L. and B. L. Burn, eds), pp. 143–162. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.Google Scholar
  12. Dempson, J. B. and J. M. Green, 1985. Life history of anadromous Arctic charr,Salvelinus alpinus, in the Fraser River, northern Labrador. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63:315–324.Google Scholar
  13. Dussart, B., 1952. L'Omble Chevalier du Léman. Annales de la station centrale d'hydrobiologie appliquée. Tome IV, 353–377.Google Scholar
  14. Dussart, B., 1954. L'Omble Chevalier en France. Annales de la station centrale d'hydrobiologie appliquée. Tome V, 129–157.Google Scholar
  15. Everhart, W. H. and Ch. A. Waters, 1965. Life history of the Blueback trout (Arctic char,Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus)) in Maine. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 94:393–397.Google Scholar
  16. Fatio, V., 1888. Les possons d'Amérique en Suisse. Diana 24:3–8.Google Scholar
  17. Fatio, V., 1890. Omble. In Faune des vertébrés de la Suisse. Vol 5, Histoire naturelle des poissons (Georg, H., ed.), pp. 393–412. Genève.Google Scholar
  18. Forel, F. A., 1892. Le Léman. Monographie limnologique. Tome premier. Lausanne.Google Scholar
  19. Forel, F. A., 1904. Le Léman. Monographie limnologique. Tome troisième. Lausanne.Google Scholar
  20. Fraser, N. C. and G. Power, 1984. The interactive segregation of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from Lake charr (S. namaycush) and Brook charr (S. fontinalis) in two lakes of subarctic Quebec, Canada. In Biology of the Arctic charr (Johnson, L. and B. L. Burns, eds), pp. 163–181. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.Google Scholar
  21. Frost, W. E. and C. Kipling, 1980. The growth of charr,Salvelinus willughbii (Günter), in Windemere. Journal of Fish Biology 16:279–289.Google Scholar
  22. Fuhrmann, O., 1943. Recherches expérimentales sur la croissance des ombles chevaliers (Rötel). Bulletin Suisse de Pêche et Pisciculture 2:249–251.Google Scholar
  23. Grainger, E. H., 1953. On the age, growth, migration, reproductive potential and feeding habits of the Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) of Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 10:327–370.Google Scholar
  24. Grimaldi, E., 1972. Lago Maggiore: Effects of exploitation and introductions on the Salmonid community. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29:777–785.Google Scholar
  25. Grimaldi, E. and W. Nümann, 1972. The futur of salmonid communities in the European subalpine lakes. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29:931–936.Google Scholar
  26. Gydemo, R., 1983. The Arctic char in lake Leynavatn, Faroe Islands. Proceeding of the second ISACF workshop on Arctic char 1982, 35–42.Google Scholar
  27. Hartmann, J., 1984. The charrs (Salvelinus alpinus) of Lake Constance, a lake undergoing cultural eutrophication. In Biology of the Arctic charr (Johnson, L. and B. L. Burns, eds), pp. 471–486. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.Google Scholar
  28. Henricson, J. and L. Nyman, 1976. The ecological and genetical segregation of two sympatric species of dwarfed char (Salvelinus alpinus (L.) species complex). Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm 55:15–37.Google Scholar
  29. Jobling, M. and T. G. Reinsnes, 1986. Physiological and social constraints on growth of Arctic charr,Salvelinus alpinus L.: an investigation of factors leading to stunting. Journal of Fish Biology 28:379–384.Google Scholar
  30. Johnson, L., 1980. The Arctic charr. In Charrs, Salmonids of the genus Salvelinus (Balon, E. K., ed.), pp. 15–98. The Hague: Dr W. Junk.Google Scholar
  31. Jonsson, B. and T. Ostli, 1979. Demographic strategy in char compared with Brown trout in Lake Lone, western Norway. Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm 58:45–54.Google Scholar
  32. Jonsson, B. and K. Hindar, 1982. Reproductive strategy of dwarf and normal Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from Vangsvatnet Lake, western Norway. Canadian Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Sciences 39:1404–1413.Google Scholar
  33. Klemetsen, A. and P. E. Grotnes, 1980. Coexistence and immigration of two sympatric Arctic charr. In Charrs, Salmonids of the genus Salvelinus (Balon, E. K., ed.), pp. 757–763. The Hague: Dr W. Junk.Google Scholar
  34. Langeland, A., 1986. Heavy exploitation of a dense resident population of Arctic char in a mountain lake in central Norway. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 6:519–525.Google Scholar
  35. MacCallum, W. R. and H. A. Regier, 1984. The biology and bioenergetics of Arctic charr in Char lake, N. W. T., Canada. In Biology of the Arctic char (Johnson, L. and B. L. Burns, eds), pp. 329–340. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.Google Scholar
  36. Machino, Y., 1987. Distribution of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in France. Proceedings of the fourth ISACF workshop on Arctic char 1986, 99–106.Google Scholar
  37. Marrer, H., 1980. La situation piscicole des lacs de la haute-Engadine. Publication de l'office fédéral pour la protection de l'environnement et l'inspection fédérale de la pêche, Berne. Cahiers de la pêche 39:1–21.Google Scholar
  38. Martin, N., 1955. Limnological and biological observation in the region of Ungava or Chubb Crater, province of Quebec. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 12:487–498.Google Scholar
  39. McCart, P. and H. Bain, 1974. An isolated population of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) inhabiting a warm mineral spring above a waterfall at Cache Creek, Northwest Territories. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 31:1408–1414.Google Scholar
  40. McCart, P. and P. Craig, 1973. Life history of two isolated populations of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in spring-fed tributaries of the Canning River, Alaska. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 30:1215–1220.Google Scholar
  41. McPhail, J. D., 1961. A systematic study of theSalvelinus alpinus complex in North America. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 18:793–814.Google Scholar
  42. Moore, J. W., 1975. Distribution, movements, and mortality of anadromous Arctic char,Salvelinus alpinus L., in the Cumberland Sound area of Baffin Island. Journal of Fish Biology 7:339–348.Google Scholar
  43. Moore, J. W. and A. Moore, 1974. Food and growth of Arctic char,Salvelinus alpinus (L.), in the Cumberland Sound area of Baffin Island. Journal of Fish Biology 6:79–92.Google Scholar
  44. Mortensen, E. and B. Christensen, 1983. Population dynamics of Arctic charr,Salvelinus alpinus (L.) in River Narssaq, Greenland. Proceeding of the secod ISACF workshop on Arctic char 1982: 107–125.Google Scholar
  45. Moshenko, R. W., R. F. Peet, L. W. Dahlke and D. H. Dowler, 1984. The Arctic charr sport fishery at Tree River, Northwest Territories, Canada, 1964–1978. In Biology of the Arctic charr (Johnson, L. and B. L. Burns, eds), pp. 349–364. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.Google Scholar
  46. Nilsen, P. and A. Klemetsen, 1984. Anadromous, resident and landlocked Arctic charr on the coast of Finnmark, N. Norway. In Biology of the Arctic charr (Johnson, L and B. L. Burns, eds), pp. 79–89. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.Google Scholar
  47. Nyman, L., 1987. High, old and small: the dwarfs of “chardom”. Proceeding of the fourth ISACF workshop on Arctic char 1986:107–112.Google Scholar
  48. Power, G., 1973. Estimates of age, growth, standing crop and production of salmonids in some North Norwegian rivers and streams. Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm 53:78–111.Google Scholar
  49. Rombough, P. J., S. E. Barbour and J. J. Kerekes, 1978. Life history and taxonomic status of an insolated population of Arctic char,Salvelinus alpinus, from Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 35:1537–1541.Google Scholar
  50. Rubin, J.-F. and B. Büttiker, 1987. Croissance et reproduction de l'omble-chevalier,Salvelinus alpinus (L.), dans le lac de Neuchâtel (Suisse). Schweizerische Zeitung für Hydrologie 49:51–56.Google Scholar
  51. Rubin, J.-F. and N. Perrin, 1990. How does the body-scale model affect back-calculated growth: The example of arctic charr,Salvelinus alpinus (L.), of Lake Geneva (Switzerland). Aquatic Sciences 52:287–295.Google Scholar
  52. Ruhlé, Ch., 1977. Biologie und Bewirtschaftung des Seesaiblings (Salvelinus alpinus L.) im Zugersee. Schweizerische Zeitung für Hydrologie 39:12–45.Google Scholar
  53. Ruhlé, Ch., 1989. Growth pattern and maturation in arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.) of Lake Walenstadt, Switzerland. Aquatic Sciences 51:296–305.Google Scholar
  54. Saunders, L. H. and G. Power, 1969. The Arctic char,Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus), of Matamek lake, Quebec. Naturaliste canadien 96:919–934.Google Scholar
  55. Scott, W. B. and E. J. Crossman, 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada 184, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  56. Sparholt, H., 1985. The population, survival, growth, reproduction and food of Arctic charr,Salvelinus alpinus (L.), in four unexploitated lakes in Greenland. Journal of Fish Biology 26:313–330.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-François Rubin
    • 1
  1. 1.Conservation de la FauneSt-SulpiceSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations