pure and applied geophysics

, Volume 101, Issue 1, pp 174–187 | Cite as

Electromagnetic propagation in an idealized earth crust waveguide, part I

  • James R. Wait
  • Kenneth P. Spies


The electromagnetic mode characteristics for the earthcrust waveguide are considered. The formulation allows for any depth-conductivity profile, but the specific results are only for a homogeneous sub-surface waveguide region with a finitely conducting lower layer and a perfectly conducting upper layer. Attenuation rates of the order of 1 dB/km are possible for operating frequencies of 20 kHz or lower if the crystalline rock in the waveguide has conductivities less than 10−6 mhos per meter.


Attenuation Lower Layer Specific Result Mode Characteristic Crystalline Rock 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    J. T. De Bettencourt,Review of radio propagation below the earth's surface, paper presented at XVth General Assembly of URSI, Munich, Germany, August (1966).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    K. G. Budden,The ‘waveguide mode’ theory of the propagation of very-low-freuqency radio waves, Proc. IRE45, No. 6 (1957), 554–560.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    S. B. Levin,Lithospheric radio propagation, Proc. NATO/AGARD Symposium on Subsurface Communications, Paris, France, April (1966).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    G. I. Makarov andV. A. Pavlov,Survey of works connected with subterranean radio wave propagation, in ‘Problems in Wave Diffraction and Propagation’, Ser. V, No. 4, Leningrad Univ. (1966), 138.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    A. M. Ryazantsev andA. V. Shabelnikov,Propagation of radio waves through the earth's crust (a review). Radiotechnika i Electronika (Moscow)10 (1965), 1923.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    K. P. Spies andJ. R. Wait,On calculations of the modal parameters of an idealized earth crust waveguide, ONR Technical Report No. 1, available from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22151, AD 721 371 (1971).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    J. R. Wait (editor), VLF Symposium Papers, Proc. IRE45, No. 6 (1957), 733–806.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    J. R. Wait,Some factors concerning electromagnetic wave propagation in the earth's crust, Proc. IEEE54 (1966), 1020.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    J. R. Wait,Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media (Second Edition), (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1970).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    J. R. Wait,Analytical investigations of electromagnetic wave propagation in the earth's crust, in ‘The Structure and Physical Properties of the Earth's Crust’ (ed. J. Heacock), 315–324 (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1972).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • James R. Wait
    • 1
  • Kenneth P. Spies
    • 2
  1. 1.Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental SciencesUniversity of ColoradoBoulder
  2. 2.Office of Telecommunications, U.S. Department of CommerceInstitute for Telecommunication SciencesBoulder

Personalised recommendations