pure and applied geophysics

, Volume 140, Issue 4, pp 681–720 | Cite as

Effects of onshore and offshore topography on sea breeze circulation: An observational study at eastern Attica, Greece

  • M. Varvayanni
  • C. G. Helmis
  • G. T. Amanatidis
  • D. N. Asimakopoulos
  • J. G. Bartzis
  • A. Soilemes
  • K. H. Papadopoulos
  • H. D. Kambezidis
Article

Abstract

Field measurements of wind, air temperature and humidity were taken at the eastern part of the Attika district in June 1991, to examine the topographic influences exerted on the local sea breezes. These influences are due either to the elongated Evia island, faced by the northern half of Attica coastline some tens of kilometers offshore, or to the coast-parallel range of Hymettos mountain, rising steeply 12 km onshore. The instrumentation consisted mainly of three tethered meteorological balloons released at characteristic sires (i.e., the coast, a location between shoreline and mountain foot and the mountain top) and three autographic ground-based anemometers operating at selected locations. Data from the ground-based and upper air stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, as well as the diurnal weather maps were also obtained and analyzed. Observations were made under different synoptic wind and the latter was found to determine remarkably the significance of the topographic effects. A preliminary two-dimensional numerical approach was also made concerning the sea breeze capability to reach the Hymettos mountain top in the case of a weak opposing geostrophic flow.

Key words

Complex terrain sea breeze evolution sea breeze propagation sea breeze rotation synoptic effects numerical approach 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbs, D. J. (1985),Sea-breeze Interactions along a Concave Coastline in Southern Australia: Observations and Numerical Modeling Study, Mon. Wea. Rev.114, 831–848.Google Scholar
  2. Arritt, R. W. (1987),The Effects of Water Surface Temperature on Lake Breezes and Thermal Internal Boundary Layers, Boundary Layer Meteorol.40, 101–125.Google Scholar
  3. Aritt, R. W. (1989),Numerical Modelling of the Offshore Extent of Sea Breezes, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc.115, 547–570.Google Scholar
  4. Aritt, R. W. (1991),A Numerical Study of Sea Breeze Frontogenesis, Fifth Conferene on Meteorology and Oceanography of the Coastal Zone, American Meteorological Society, May 6–10, 1991, Miami, Florida.Google Scholar
  5. Asimakopoulos, D. N., Deligiorgi, D. G., Drakopoulos, C., Helmis, C. G., Kokkori, K., Lalas, D. P., Sikiotis, D., andVarotsos, C. (1992),An Experimental Study of Night-time Air-pollutant Transport over Complex Terrain in Athens, Atmos. Environment26B, 59–71.Google Scholar
  6. Atkinson, B. W.,Meso-scale Atmospheric Circulations (Academic Press Inc., London Ltd 1981), 495 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Bartzis, J. G. (1989),Turbulent Diffusion Modelling for Wind Flow and Dispersion Analysis, Atm. Env.23, 1963–1969.Google Scholar
  8. Bartzis, J. G., Venetsanos, A., Varvayanni, M., Catsaros, N., andMegaritou, A. (1991),ADREA-I. A Transient Three-dimensional Transport Code for Complex Terrain and Other Applications, Nuclear Technology94, 135–148.Google Scholar
  9. Bartzis, J. G., Varvayanni, M., Housiadas, C., Catsaros, N., andAmanatidis, G. T. (1992),Mesoscale numerical modelling with ADREA-I: main features and results. In Proceedings of the Fifth Interntional Conference onPrecipitation Scavenging and Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Processes, Richland, Washington, USA, 15–19 July 1991, V. 3, pp. 1311–1322, Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  10. Betchtold, P., Pinty, J. P., andMascart, P. (1991),A Numerical Investigation of the Influence of Large-scale Winds on Sea-breeze Inland-breeze-type Circulations, J. Appl. Meteorol.30, 1268–1279.Google Scholar
  11. Clarke, R. H. (1989),Sea Breezes and Waves: the Kalgoorlie Sea Breeze and the Goondiwindi Breeze, Aust. Meteorol. Mag.37, 99–107.Google Scholar
  12. Dalu, G. A., andPielke R. A. (1989),An Analytical Study of the Sea Breeze, J. Atmos. Sci.46, 1815–1825.Google Scholar
  13. Feliks, Y. (1988),The Sea Breeze Front Analytical Model, J. Atmos. Sci.45, 1030–1038.Google Scholar
  14. Green, J. S., andDalu, G. A. (1980),Mesoscale Energy Generated in the Boundary Layer, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc.106, 721–726.Google Scholar
  15. Helmis, C. G., Deligiorgi, D. G., Asimakopoulos, D. N., Lalas, D. P. (1992),Evidence of sea breeze flow at the top of Hymettos Mountain. In Sixth International Symposium onAcoustic Remote Sensing and Associated Techniques of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Athens, Greece, 26–29 May, pp. 287–293.Google Scholar
  16. Holton, J. R.,An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology (Academic Press, New York 1979) 391 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Housiadas, C., Amanatidis, G. T., Bartzis, J. G. (1990),Prediction of Orographic Precipitation Using Cartesian Coordinates and a Single Prognostic Equation for the Water Substance, Boundary Layer Meteor.56, 245–260.Google Scholar
  18. Kallos, G.,Mesoscale Flow-fields and dispersion in the coastal terrain of eastern Korinthian Gulf in Greece during summer. InAir Pollution Modelling and its Application VIII (eds. Van Dop, H., and Steyn, D. G.) (Plenum Press 1990) 15, pp. 361–369.Google Scholar
  19. Kallos, G., andKassomenos, P. (1991),Weather conditions during air pollution episodes in Athens, Greece: An overview of the problem. In NATO/CCMS 19th ITM onAir Pollution Modelling and its Application, 29 Sept.–4 Oct., Ierapetra, Crete, Greece.Google Scholar
  20. Kikuchi, Y., Arakawa, S., Kimura, F., Shirasaki, K., andNagano, Y. (1981),Numerical Study on the Effects of Mountains on the Land and Sea Breeze Circulation in the Kanto District, J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan59, 723–738.Google Scholar
  21. Kraus, H., Hacker, J. M., andHartmann, J. (1990),An Observational Aircraft-based Study of Sea-breeze Frontogenesis, Boundary Layer Meteorol.26, 223–265.Google Scholar
  22. Kusuda, M., andAbe, N. (1989),The Contribution of Horizontal Advection to the Diurnal Variation of the Wind Direction of Land-sea Breezes: Theory and Observations, J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan67, 177–184.Google Scholar
  23. Lalas, D. P., Asimakopoulos, D. N., Deligiorgi, D. G., andHelmis, C. G. (1983),Sea-breeze Circulation and Photochemical Pollution in Athens Greece, Atmos. Environment17, 1621–1632.Google Scholar
  24. Lalas, D. P., Tombrou-Tsella M., Petrakis, M., Asimakopoulos, D. N., andHelmis, C. G. (1987),An Experimental Study of the Horizontal and Vertical Distribution of Ozone over Athens, Atmos. Environment21, 2681–2693.Google Scholar
  25. Lyons, W. A. (1972),The Climatology and Prediction of the Chicago Lake Breeze, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 1259–1270.Google Scholar
  26. Mahrer, Y., andPielke, R. A. (1977),The Effects of Topography on Sea and Land Breezes in a Two-dimensional Model, Mon. Wea. Rev.105, 1151–1162.Google Scholar
  27. Moussiopoulos, N. (1985),A Numerical Simulation of the Sea Breeze in Athens, Pure and Appl. Geophys.123, 314–327.Google Scholar
  28. Neumann, J. (1977),On the Rotation Rate of Sea and Land Breezes, J. Atmos. Sci.34, 1913–1917.Google Scholar
  29. Ookouchi, Y., Uryu, M., andSawada, R. (1978),A Numerical Study on the Effects of a Mountain on the Land and Sea Breezes, J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan56, 368–385.Google Scholar
  30. Papageorgiou, J. G. (1988),A 3-D Sea Breeze Model of the PBL Including Pollutant Dispersion, Boundary Layer Meteorol.45, 9–29.Google Scholar
  31. Prezerakos, N. G. (1986),Characteristics of the Sea Breeze in Attika, Greeze, Boundary Layer Meteorol.36, 245–266.Google Scholar
  32. Physick, W. (1976),A Numerical Model of the Sea-breeze Phenomenon over a Lake or Gulf, J. Atmos. Sci.33, 2107–2135.Google Scholar
  33. Savijarvi, H., andAlestalo, M. (1988),The Sea Breeze over a Lake or Gulf as the Function of the Prevailing Flow, Contrib. Atmos. Physics61, 98–104.Google Scholar
  34. Segal, M., Mahrer, Y., andPielke, R. A. (1983),A Study of Meteorological Patterns Associated with a Lake Confined by Mountains: The Dead Sea Case, Quart. J. R. Met. Sco.109, 549–564.Google Scholar
  35. Schlunzen, K. H. (1990),Numerical Studies on the Inland Penetration of Sea Breeze Fronts at a Coastline with Tidally Flooded Mudflats, Contr. Atmos. Physics63, 243–256.Google Scholar
  36. Soilemes, A. T., Papageorgas, P. G., Helmis, C. G., andAsimakopoulos, D. N. (1991),The University of Athens Profiler System, Seminar on Monitoring and Modelling in the Mesoscale, Thessaloniki, Greece, Sept. 27, pp. 79–88.Google Scholar
  37. Steyn, D. G., andKallos, G. (1992),A Study of Dynamics of Hodograph Rotation in the Sea Breezes of Attika, Greece, Bound. Layer Meteor.58, 215–228.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Varvayanni
    • 1
  • C. G. Helmis
    • 2
  • G. T. Amanatidis
    • 1
  • D. N. Asimakopoulos
    • 2
  • J. G. Bartzis
    • 1
  • A. Soilemes
    • 2
  • K. H. Papadopoulos
    • 2
  • H. D. Kambezidis
    • 3
  1. 1.National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation ProtectionAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Physics, Laboratory of MeteorologyUniversity of AthensGreece
  3. 3.Institute of Meteorology and Physics of the Atmospheric EnvironmentNational Observatory of AthensGreece

Personalised recommendations