Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 13, Issue 10, pp 795–802 | Cite as

Ethics perceptions of American Farmers: An empirical analysis

  • Allen Rappaport
  • Robert A. Himschoot
Article

Abstract

A 123 item survey of ethics perceptions of Farmers had 796 respondents. Of these, 517 (64.9%) felt that farm ethics had gotten worse. A discriminant analysis employed to offer insight into the extent and nature of group differences produced 22 independent variables along with an adequate increase in classification results above expectations due to chance. These variables reflect a division between the outside business and political world and the concerns of farmers. The responses suggest an appreciation by the respondents of the interdependence of their business actions with their neighbors. The results are also suggestive of both an absolute and a relative ethics component. Further research on the relevance of communitarian ethics is suggested.

Keywords

Economic Growth Discriminant Analysis Empirical Analysis Classification Result Item Survey 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aiken, W.: 1984, ‘Value Conflicts in Argiculture’,Agriculture and Human Values I 1, Winter.Google Scholar
  2. Altman, E. I., R. B. Avery, R. A. Eisenbeis and J. R. Sinkey: 1981,Application of Classification Techniques in Business, Banking and Finance.Google Scholar
  3. Armstrong, P. S. and M. D. Schulman: 1990, ‘Financial Strain and Depression Among Farm Operators: The Role of Perceived Economic Hardship and Personal Control’,Rural Sociology, 475–493.Google Scholar
  4. Beauchamp, T. L. and N. E. Bowie: 1983,Ethical Theory and Business.Google Scholar
  5. Beus, C. E. and R. E. Dunlap: 1990, ‘Conventional Versus Alternative Agriculture: The Paradigmatic Roots of the Debate’,Rural Sociology, 590–616.Google Scholar
  6. Brandt, R. B.: 1959,Ethical Theory, The Problems of Normative and Critical Ethics.Google Scholar
  7. Breimyer, H. F.: 1985, ‘Agriculture's Problem Is Rooted in Washington’,Challenge, 53–54.Google Scholar
  8. Broad, C. D.: 1916, ‘On the Function of False Hypothesis in Ethics’,International Journal of Ethics, 377–397.Google Scholar
  9. Burkhardt, J.: 1986, ‘Agribusiness Ethics and Specifying the Terms of the Contract’,Journal of Business Ethics 5, 333–345.Google Scholar
  10. Buttel, F. H. and W. L. Flinn: 1977, ‘Conceptions of Rural Life and Environmental Concern’,Rural Sociology, 545–555.Google Scholar
  11. Buttel, F. H. and W. L. Flinn: 1976, ‘Sociopolitical Consequences of Agrarianism’,Rural Sociology, 472–483.Google Scholar
  12. Buttel, F. H. and W. L. Flinn: 1975, ‘Sources and Consequences of Agrarian Values in American Society’,Rural Sociology, 135–151.Google Scholar
  13. Cohen, J. and P. Cohen: 1983,Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Ed.Google Scholar
  14. Cooley, W. W. and P. R. Lohnes: 1971,Multivariate Data Analysis.Google Scholar
  15. Derry, R. and R. M. Green: 1989, ‘Ethical Theory in Business Ethics’,Journal of Business Ethics, 521–533.Google Scholar
  16. Dillon, W. R.: 1979, ‘The Performance of the Linear Discriminant Function in Nonoptimal Situations and the Estimation of Classification Error Rates: A Review of Recent Findings’,Journal of Marketing Research 16, 370–381.Google Scholar
  17. Eisenbeis, R. A.: 1977, ‘Pitfalls in the Applications of Discriminant Analysis in Business, Finance, and Economics’,Journal of Finance 32(3), 875–900.Google Scholar
  18. Eisenbeis, R. A. and R. B. Avery: 1972,Discriminant Analysis and Classification Procedures: Theory and Applications.Google Scholar
  19. Etzioni, A.: 1988,The Moral Dimension. Toward a New Economics, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Fatti, L., P. Hawkins, M. Douglas and E. L. Raath: 1982, ‘Discriminant Analysis’, in Hawkins, Douglas M. (ed.),Topics in Applied Multivariate Analysis.Google Scholar
  21. Fienbery, S. W.: 1980,The Analysis of Cross-Classified Categorial Data.Google Scholar
  22. Fishbein, M.: 1963, ‘An Investigation of the Relationship Between Beliefs About and Object and the Attitude Toward that Object’,Human Relationships 16, 238.Google Scholar
  23. Frank, R. E., W. F. Massy, D. G. Morrison: 1965, ‘Bias in Multiple Discriminant Analysis’,Journal of Marketing Research 2(3), 250–258.Google Scholar
  24. Gahr, E.: 1992, ‘A Common Sense of Community’,Insight, Aug. 3, 12–13, 38.Google Scholar
  25. Gilbert, E. S.: 1968, ‘On Discrimination Using Qualitative Variables’,Journal of the American Statistical Association,63(324), 1399–1412.Google Scholar
  26. Gilbert, E. S.: 1969, ‘The Effect of Unequal Variance-Covariance Matrices on Fisher's LDF’,Biometrics 25, 505–516.Google Scholar
  27. Hair, J. R., F. Joseph, R. E. Anderson and R. L. Tatham: 1987,Multivariate Data Analysis, 2nd Ed.Google Scholar
  28. Holman, C. B.: 1988, ‘Farmers and their Partisan Affiliations’,Rural Sociology, 487–497.Google Scholar
  29. Kendall, M. and A. Stuart: 1979,The Advanced Theory of Statistics, Vol. 2.Google Scholar
  30. Knoke D. and P. J. Burke: 1980,Log-Linear Models.Google Scholar
  31. Krozanowski, W. J.: 1975, ‘Discrimination and Classification Using Both Binary and Continuous Variables’,Journal of the American Statistical Association 70(352), 782–790.Google Scholar
  32. Lachenbruch, P. A.: 1975,Discriminant Analysis.Google Scholar
  33. Lachenbruch, P. A.: 1968, ‘On Expected Probabilities of Misclassification in Discriminant Analysis, Necessary Sample Size, and a Relation with Multiple Correlation Coefficient’,Biometrics 24, 823–834.Google Scholar
  34. Lachenburch, P. A.: 1967, ‘An almost Unbiased Method of Obtaining Confidence Intervals for the Probability of Misclassification in Discriminant Analysis’,Biometrics 23, 639–645.Google Scholar
  35. Lachenbruch, P. A. and M. A. Mickey: 1968, ‘Estimation of Error Rates in Discriminant Analysis’,Technometrics 10, 1–11.Google Scholar
  36. Lachenbruch P. A., C. Sneeringer and L. T. Reno: 1973, ‘Robustness of the Linear and Quadratic Discriminant Function to Certain Types of Non-Normality’,Communications in Statistics 1, 39–56.Google Scholar
  37. Lowe, G. C. and T. K. Pinhey: 1980, ‘Do Rural People Place a Lower Value on Formal Education?: New Evidence from National Surveys’,Rural Sociology, 325–331.Google Scholar
  38. Marks, S. and O. J. Dunn: 1974, ‘Discriminant Functions When Covariance Matrices Are Unequal’,Journal of the American Statistical Association 69, 555–559.Google Scholar
  39. Mclachlan, G. J.: 1976, ‘A Criterion for Selecting Variables for the Linear Discriminant Function’,Biometrics 32, 529–534.Google Scholar
  40. Michaelis, J.: 1973, ‘Simulation Experiments with Multiple Group Linear and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis’, in Cacoullos, Theophilos (ed.),Discriminant Analysis and Applications.Google Scholar
  41. Miller, M. K.: 1977, ‘Commentary on the Use and Interpretation of Multiple Discriminant Analysis’,Rural Sociology 42(2), 261–263.Google Scholar
  42. Morrison, D. G.: 1969, ‘On the Interpretation of Discriminant Analysis’,J. Market Review, 156–163.Google Scholar
  43. Pinches, G. E.: 1980, ‘Factors Influencing Classification Results from Multiple Discriminant Analysis’,Journal of Business Research 8, 429–456.Google Scholar
  44. Press, S. J., and S. Wilson: 1978, ‘Choosing Between Logistics Regression and Discriminant Analysis’,Journal of the American Statistical Association 7, 699–703.Google Scholar
  45. Randall, D. M., and A. M. Gibson: 1990, ‘Methodology in Business Research: A Review and Critical Assessment’,Journal of Business Ethics 9.Google Scholar
  46. Searle, S. R. and J. G. Gudell: 1970, ‘The use of Regression on Dummy Variables in Management Research’,Management Science, 397–409.Google Scholar
  47. Siegel S.: 1956,Non-Parametric Statistics.Google Scholar
  48. Sigelman, L.: 1983, ‘Politics, Economics, and the American Farmer: The Case of 1980’,Rural Sociology, 367–385.Google Scholar
  49. Survey Research Center: 1974,Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Wave 7 (Ann Arbor, MI), p. 83.Google Scholar
  50. Tatsuoka, M. M.: 1970,Discriminant Analysis — The Study of Group Differences: Selected Topics in Advanced Statistics, No. 6.Google Scholar
  51. Wolf C.: 1975, ‘Group Perspective Formation and Strategies of Identity in a Post-Threat Situation’,Sociology Quarterly, 412.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allen Rappaport
    • 1
  • Robert A. Himschoot
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of FinanceUniversity of Northern IowaCedar FallsUSA

Personalised recommendations