pure and applied geophysics

, Volume 68, Issue 1, pp 186–195 | Cite as

On the growth of ice crystals in supercooled water and aqueous solution drops

  • H. R. Pruppacher
Article

Summary

The results of a recent investigation on the free growth rate and the growth forms of ice in supercooled water and aqueous solutions are presented. The results are used to discuss the structure of frozen drops, the structure of hailstones, the mechanisms which are responsible for the glaciation of atmospheric clouds and the mechanisms which cause cloud electrification. It was found that the presence of dissolved salts and dust particles in cloud drops favor the formation of spongy and polycristalline ice, that it is unlikely for frozen cloud drops to develop into hexagonal shaped ice single-crystals, and that it is also unlikely that in atmospheric clouds freezing drops shatter and splinter. The latter result casts serious doubts on the splintering mechanism to contribute to thunderstorm electrification and to promote glaciation of clouds.

Keywords

Growth Rate Aqueous Solution Dust Hexagonal Dust Particle 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    J. Hallett,Crystal growth and the formation of spikes in the surface of supercooled water, J. Glaciology,3 (1960), 698–704.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. Hallett,Experimental studies of the crystallization of supercooled water, J. Atmos. Sci.21 (1964), 671–682.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    H. R. Pruppacher,Some relations between the supercooling and the structure of aqueous solutions. J. Chem. Phys.39 (1963), 1586–1594.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    H. R. Pruppacher andM. Neiburger,The effect of water soluble substances on the supercooling of water drops, J. Atmos. Sci.20 (1963), 376–385.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Th. E. Hoffer,A laboratory investigation of droplet freezing, J. Meteor.18 (1961), 766–778.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    R. Braham,On the role of ice in summer rain showers, J. Atmos. Sci.21 (1964), 640–645.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    W. C. Macklin andB. F. Ryan,The structure of ice grown in bulk supercooled water,J. Atmos. Sci. 22 (1965), 452–459.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    W. C. Macklin,Accretion in mixed clouds, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc.87 (1961), 413–424.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    W. C. Macklin andB. F. Ryan,On the formation of spongy ice, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc.88 (1962), 548–549.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    A. Aufdermauer et al., Kristallachsenlagen in Hagelkörnern, Z. Angew. Math. Physik14 (1963), 574–589.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    R. List,Kennzeichen atmosphärischer Eispartikel, Z. Angew. Math. Physik.9a (1958), 217–234.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    R. List,Wachstum von Eiswassergemischen im Hagelkanal, Helv. Phys. Acta.32 (1959), 293–296.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    R. List,Structure and growth of hailstones, Geophysical Monograph No. 5 (1960), 317–324.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    J. E. Dye andP. V. Hobbs,Effect of carbon dioxide on the shattering of freezing water drops, Nature209 (1966), 464–466.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    B. J. Mason andJ. Maybank,The fragmentation and electrification of freezing water drops, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc.86 (1960), 176–185.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    J. Latham,Electrification produced by the growth of soft hail in thunderclouds, Tellus17 (1965), 204–212.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    C. Magono andT. Takahashi,On the electrical phenomena during riming and glazing on natural supercooled clouds, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan41 (1963), 71–81.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    C. Magono andT. Takahashi,Experimental studies on the mechanism of electrification of graupel pellets. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan41 (1963) 197–209.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    B. J. Mason,The physics of clouds (Oxford University Press, 1957), Chapter 5, 168–198.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    H. R. Pruppacher,The growth modes of ice crystals in supercooled water and aqueous solutions, J. Glaciology6 (1967), 651–662.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    C. S. Lindenmeyer,The solidification of supercooled aqueous solutions, Ph. D. Thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. (1959).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    H. Freundlich andF. Oppenheimer,Über die Kristallisationsgeschwindigkeit in unterkühlten, wässerigen Solen, Chemische Berichte58 (1925), 143–148.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    M. I. Kozlovski,Formation of screw dislocations in the growth of a crystal around solid particles, Soviet Physics, Cristallograffia,5 (1960), 207–211.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    J. Latham andB. J. Mason,Generation of electric charge associated with the formation of soft hail in thunderclouds, Proc. Roy. Soc. [A]260 (1961), 537–549.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. R. Pruppacher
    • 1
  1. 1.Cloud Physics Laboratory, Department of MeteorologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos Angeles

Personalised recommendations