Effect of probenecid on excretion and natriuretic action of furosemide
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Furosemide and inulin were given simultaneously by intravenous infusion to nine subjects over 2 h. The concentrations of sodium and of the two drugs in serum (free and protein bound) and in urine were followed during the infusion. In 6 male subjects the investigation was repeated after 3 days of oral treatment with probenecid 500 mg twice daily. Probenecid reduced the average ratio furosemide clearance/inulin clearance from 0.92 to 0.44. In experiments in which no probenecid had been given an average of 2% of the furosemide in urine was excreted by glomerular filtration. In vitro studies showed that the protein binding of furosemide was decreased in the presence of probenecid. The displacing effect of probenecid was confirmed in vivo, and during probenecid treatment glomerular filtration produced an average of 8% of the furosemide excreted by the kidney. The fraction of furosemide excreted by tubular secretion decreased during probenecid treatment from 98.0±0.6% to 91.7±5.6% (p<0.05). Prior to administration of probenecid, the fraction of the filtered sodium recovered from the urine during furosemide administration was 24.7%. Probenecid reduced that fraction to 21.0% (p<0.05). The excretion rate of furosemide appeared to be a better predictor of the natriuretic effect than its plasma concentration. Probenecid caused a significant change (p<0.05) in the regression line relating the log plasma concentration to the natriuretic effect, but it had no effect on the regression line relating the log urinary excretion rate of furosemide to its natriuretic effect. Although the decrease in the furosemide excretion rate during probenecid treatment averaged 25%, the sodium excretion rate was reduced by less than 15%. It is suggested that the natriuretic effect of furosemide is more pronounced if the furosemide molecules enter the tubular lumen at a more proximal level, and it is strongest if they do so by filtration through the glomerulus.
Key wordsfurosemide probenecid protein binding natriuretic interaction diuretic effect
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