pure and applied geophysics

, Volume 115, Issue 5–6, pp 1383–1412 | Cite as

Mid-tropospheric cyclones of the summer monsoon

  • Frederick H. Carr


Mid-tropospheric cyclones are often observed on daily and monthly mean maps over southern Asia during the summer southwest monsson season. Although they are important activators of monsoon rains over certain regions, only a few observational studies are available, and even fewer theoretical and numerical studies have been performed. This article attempts to summarize the present observational knowledge about mid-tropospheric cyclones and reviews current ideas on the formation, maintenance and dissipation of these systems. A recent numerical simulation of a mid-tropospheric cyclone is described. In general, latent heat release plays the dominant role in the dynamics of the cyclone. Much is still to be learned about mid-tropospheric cyclones and several promising areas of future research are suggested.

Key words

Mid-Tropospheric cyclones monsoon 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, D. A. (1973),Scale interactions of forced quasi-stationary planetary waves at low latitudes, Rept. 73-2, Dept. of Meteorology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 190 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Arakawa, A. andSchubert, W. H. (1974),Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment. Part 1., J. Atmos. Sci.31, 674–701.Google Scholar
  3. Carr, F. H. (1977),Numerical simulation of a mid-tropospheric cyclone, Rept. 77-1, Dept. of Meteorology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 267 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Charney, J. G. (1947),The dynamics of long waves in a baroclinic westerly current, J. Meteor.4, 135–162.Google Scholar
  5. Charney, J. G. andDrazin, P. G. (1961),Propagation of planetary disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res.66, 83–109.Google Scholar
  6. Charney, J. G. andEliassen, A. (1964),On the growth of the hurricane depression, J. Atmos. Sci.21, 68–75.Google Scholar
  7. Eady, E. T. (1949),Long waves and cyclone waves, Tellus,1, 33–52.Google Scholar
  8. Krishnamurti, T. N. (1968),A diagnostic balance model for studies of weather systems of low and high latidues, Rossby number less than 1, Mon. Wea. Rev.96, 197–207.Google Scholar
  9. Krishnamurti, T. N. andBhalme, H. N. (1976),Oscillations of a monsoon system. Part I: Observational aspects. J. Atmos. Sci.33, 1937–1954.Google Scholar
  10. Krishnamurti, T. N. andHawkins, R. S. (1970),Mid-tropospheric cyclones of the southwest monsson, J. Appl. Meteor.9, 442–458.Google Scholar
  11. Krishnamurti, T. N., Kanamitsu, M., Godbole, R., Chang, C.-B., Carr, F. andChow, J. (1976),Study of a monsoon depression (II)—Dynamical structure, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan54, 208–225.Google Scholar
  12. Kuo, H. L. (1965),On formation and intensification of tropical cyclones through latent heat release by cumulus convection, J. Atmos. Sci.22, 40–63.Google Scholar
  13. Mak, M.-K. (1975),The monsoonal mid-tropospheric cyclogenesis, J. Atmos. Sci.32, 2246–2253.Google Scholar
  14. Miller, F. R. andKeshavamurthy, R. N. (1968),Structure of an Arabian Sea summer monsoon system, I.I.O.E. Meteorological Monograph1, (East-West Center Press, Honolulu), 94 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Murakami, M. (1976),Analysis of summer monsoon fluctuations over India, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan54, 15–31.Google Scholar
  16. Murakami, T. andFrydrych, M. (1974),On the preferred period of upper wind fluctuations during the summer monsoon, J. Atmos. Sci.31, 1549–1555.Google Scholar
  17. Petterssen, S. (1953),On the dynamics of the Indian monsoon, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Ser. A37, 229–233.Google Scholar
  18. Ramage, C. S. (1962),The subtropical cyclone, J. Geophys. Res.,67, 1401–1411.Google Scholar
  19. Ramage, C. S. (1964),Some preliminary results from the International Meteorological Center, In Proc. Symp. Tropical Meteor., New Zealand Meteorological Service. Wellington, 403–408.Google Scholar
  20. Ramage, C. S. (1966),The summer atmospheric circulation over the Arabian Sea, J. Atmos. Sci.23, 144–150.Google Scholar
  21. Ramage, C. S.,Monsoon meteorology (Academic Press, New York 1971), 296 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Raman, C. R. V. andRamanathan, Y. (1964),Interaction between lower and upper tropical tropospheres, Nature204, 31–35.Google Scholar
  23. Ramaswamy, C. (1962),Breaks in the Indian summer monsoon as a phenomenon of interaction between the easterly and the sub-tropical westerly jet streams, Tellus14, 337–349.Google Scholar
  24. Rao, Y. P. (1962),Meridional circulation associated with the monsoons of India, Ind. J. Meteor. Geophys.13, 157–166.Google Scholar
  25. Shukla, J. (1976),On the dynamics of monsoon disturbances, Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  26. Thiruvengadathan, A. (1972),Synoptic situations associated with spells of strong and weak monsoon over Konkan, Ind. J. Meteor. Geophys.23, 207–210.Google Scholar
  27. Washington, W. M. andBaumhefner, D. P. (1975),A method of removing Lamb waves from initial data for primitive equation models, J. Appl. Meteor.14, 114–119.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick H. Carr
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Atmospheric ScienceState University of New York at AlbanyAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations