Advertisement

pure and applied geophysics

, Volume 115, Issue 5–6, pp 1187–1208 | Cite as

Monsoonal quasi-stationary ultralong waves of the tropical troposphere predicted by a real data prediction over a global tropical belt

  • M. Kanamitsu
Article

Abstract

The mechanisms of the maintenance of the tropical upper tropospheric quasi-stationary ultralong waves during the northern hemisphere summer season are briefly reviewed and discussed. Diagnostic and prognostic studies indicate that the waves are maintained by the land-ocean contrast heating. These scales of motion as a whole (sum of the zonal wavenumbers 1, 2 and 3) are considered to supply kinetic energy to all other scales of motion.

The ultralong waves predicted in the real data numerical prediction experiment over the global tropics using a multi-level primitive equation model are examined and compared with the observed climatological waves. The predicted waves are found to have several similarities with the observations. Further investigations of the baroclinic nature of the waves indicate that their thermal structure is essential for understanding their dynamics.

The vorticity budget computations are performed for the predicted ultralong waves at 200 mb and also compared with the climatological observations. It is found that the advection term is one of the leading terms in the vorticity equation.

This study indicates that the tropical quasi-stationary ultralong waves are fully nonlinear, non-geostrophic, three-dimensional waves forced mainly by the convective heating over the monsoon Indian subcontient.

Key words

Monsoon Tropical ultralong waves 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott, D. A. (1973),Scale interactions of forced quasi-stationary planetary waves at low latitudes. Dept. Meteor. Florida State Univ. Report, 73-2.Google Scholar
  2. Baumhefner, D. P. (1968),Application of a diagnostic numerical model to the tropical atmosphere, Mon. Wea. Rev.96, 218–228.Google Scholar
  3. Burger, A. (1958),Scale considerations of planetary motions of the atmosphere, Tellus10, 195–205.Google Scholar
  4. Colton, D. E. (1973),Barotropic scale interactions in the tropical upper troposphere during the northern summer, J. Atmos. Sci.30, 1287–1302.Google Scholar
  5. Deland, J. R. (1965),On the scale analysis of traveling planetary waves, Tellus17, 527–528.Google Scholar
  6. Dickinson, E. R. (1968),A note on geostrophic scale analysis of planetary waves, Tellus20, 548–550.Google Scholar
  7. Flohn, H. (1964),Investigations on the tropical easterly jet, Tech. Rep., Meterological Institute, Univ. of Bonn.Google Scholar
  8. Hahn, D. G. andManabe, S. (1975),The role of mountains in the south Asian monsoon circulation. J. Atmos. Sci.32, 1515–1541.Google Scholar
  9. Haltiner, G. J.,Numerical Weather Prediction, (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1971), 317 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Holton, J. R.,An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology (AP, 1972), 319 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Holton, J. R. andColton, D. E. (1972),A diagnostic study of the vorticity balance at 200 mb in the tropics during the northern summer, J. Atmos. Sci.29, 1124–1128.Google Scholar
  12. Kanamitsu, M. (1975),On numerical prediction over a global tropical belt, Dept. Meteor. Florida State Univ. Report, 75-1.Google Scholar
  13. Kanamitsu, M., Krishnamurti, T. N. andDepradine, C. (1972),On scale interaction in the tropics during northern summer, J. Atmos. Sci.29, 698–706.Google Scholar
  14. Koteswaram, P. (1958),The easterly jet stream in the tropics, Tellus10, 43–57.Google Scholar
  15. Krishnamurti, T. N. (1971a),Observational study of the tropical upper tropospheric motion field during the norther hemisphere summer, J. Appl. Meteor.10, 1066–1096.Google Scholar
  16. Krishnamurti, T. N. (1971b),Tropical east-west circulations during the northern summer, J. Atmos. Sci.28, 1342–1347.Google Scholar
  17. Krishnamurti, T. N. andRogers, E. B. (1970),200 mb wind field June, July and August, 1967, Dept. Meteor. Florida State Univ. Report, 70-2.Google Scholar
  18. Krishnamurti, T. N., Daggupaty, S. M., Fein, J., Kanamitsu, M. andLee, J. D. (1973a),Tibetan high and upper tropospheric tropical circulations during northern summer, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.54, 1234–1249.Google Scholar
  19. Krishnamurti, T. N., Kanamitsu, M., Ceselski, B. andMathur, M. B. (1973b),Florida State University's tropical prediction model, Tellus25, 523–535.Google Scholar
  20. Krishnamurti, T. N., Astling, E. G. andKanamitsu, M. (1975),200 mb wind field June, July and August, 1972, Dept. Meteor. Florida State Univ. Report, 75-2.Google Scholar
  21. Krishnamurti, T. N., Kanamitsu, M., Godbole, R., Chang, C. B., Carr, F. andChow, J. C. (1976),Study of a monsoon depression (II), Dynamical structure, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,54, 208–225.Google Scholar
  22. Manabe, S., Hahn, D. G. andHolloway, J. L. Jr. (1974),The seasonal variation of the tropical circulations as simulated by a global model of the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.31, 43–48.Google Scholar
  23. Miyakoda, K., Sadler, J. C. andHembee, G. D. (1974),An experimental prediction of the tropical atmosphere for the case of March 1965, Mon. Wea. Rev.102, 571–591.Google Scholar
  24. Newell, R. E., Kidson, J. W., Vincent, D. G. andBoer, G. J.,The General Circulation of the Tropical Atmosphere and Interactions with Extratropical Latitudes. Vol. 1, (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. and London 1974), 258 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Newell, R. E., Kidson, J. W., Vincent, D. G. andBoer, G. J.,The General Circulation of the Tropical Atmosphere and Interactions with Extratropical Latitudes, Vol. 2, (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. and London 1974), 371 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Pedgley, D. E. andKrishnamurti, T. N. (1976),Structure and behavior of a monsoon cyclone over west Africa, Mon. Wea. Rev.104, 149–167.Google Scholar
  27. Reed, R. J. andRecker, E. E. (1971),Structure and properties of synoptic-scale wave disturbances in the equatorial western Pacific, J. Atmos. Sci.28, 1117–1133.Google Scholar
  28. Riehl, H.,Tropical Meteorology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1954), 392 pp.Google Scholar
  29. Saltzman, B. (1970),Large-scale atmospheric energetics in the wavenumber domain, Rev. Geophys.8, 289–302.Google Scholar
  30. Washington, W. M. andDaggupaty, S. M. (1975),Numerical simulation with the NCAR global circulation model of the mean conditions during the Asian-African summer monsoon, Mon. Wea. Rev.103, 105–114.Google Scholar
  31. Webster, P. J. (1972),Response of the tropical atmosphere to local steady forcing, Mon. Wea. Rev.100, 518–541.Google Scholar
  32. Webster, P. J. (1973),Remote forcing of time independent tropical atmosphere, Mon. Wea. Rev.101, 58–68.Google Scholar
  33. Winninghoff, F. J. (1973),Note on a simple restorative-iterative procedure for initialization of a global forecast model, Mon. Wea. Rev.101, 79–84.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Kanamitsu
    • 1
  1. 1.Meteorological College/Japan Meteorological AgencyKashiwa-shi, ChibaJapan

Personalised recommendations