Monsoonal quasi-stationary ultralong waves of the tropical troposphere predicted by a real data prediction over a global tropical belt
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The mechanisms of the maintenance of the tropical upper tropospheric quasi-stationary ultralong waves during the northern hemisphere summer season are briefly reviewed and discussed. Diagnostic and prognostic studies indicate that the waves are maintained by the land-ocean contrast heating. These scales of motion as a whole (sum of the zonal wavenumbers 1, 2 and 3) are considered to supply kinetic energy to all other scales of motion.
The ultralong waves predicted in the real data numerical prediction experiment over the global tropics using a multi-level primitive equation model are examined and compared with the observed climatological waves. The predicted waves are found to have several similarities with the observations. Further investigations of the baroclinic nature of the waves indicate that their thermal structure is essential for understanding their dynamics.
The vorticity budget computations are performed for the predicted ultralong waves at 200 mb and also compared with the climatological observations. It is found that the advection term is one of the leading terms in the vorticity equation.
This study indicates that the tropical quasi-stationary ultralong waves are fully nonlinear, non-geostrophic, three-dimensional waves forced mainly by the convective heating over the monsoon Indian subcontient.
Key wordsMonsoon Tropical ultralong waves
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