pure and applied geophysics

, Volume 144, Issue 3–4, pp 537–554 | Cite as

Modeling the seismic source and tsunami generation of the December 12, 1992 Flores Island, Indonesia, earthquake

  • Dannie Hidayat
  • Jeffrey S. Barker
  • Kenji Satake


On December 12, 1992 a large earthquake (M s 7.5) occurred just north of Flores Island, Indonesia which, along with the tsunami it generated, killed more than 2,000 people. In this study, teleseismicP andSH waves, as well asPP waves from distances up to 123°, are inverted for the orientations and time histories of multiple point sources. By repeating the inversion for reasonable values of depth, time separation and spatial separation, a 2-fault model is developed. Next, the vertical deformation of the seafloor is estimated from this fault model. Using a detailed bathymetric model, linear and nonlinear tsunami propagation models are tested. The data consist of a single tide gauge record at Palopo (650 km to the north), as well as tsunami runup height measurements from Flores Island and nearby islands. Assuming a tsunami runup amplification factor of two, the two-fault model explains the tide gauge record and the tsunami runup heights on most of Flores Island. It cannot, however, explain the large tsunami runup heights observed near Leworahang (on Hading Bay) and Riangkroko (on the northeast peninsula). Massive coastal slumping was observed at both of these locations. A final model, which in addition to the two faults, includes point sources of large vertical displacement at these two locations explains the observations quite well.

Key words

Earthquake source body waves moment tensor tsunami modeling submarine slumps Indonesia 


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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dannie Hidayat
    • 1
  • Jeffrey S. Barker
    • 1
  • Kenji Satake
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesState University of New YorkBinghamtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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