pure and applied geophysics

, Volume 132, Issue 1–2, pp 221–244 | Cite as

Studies of coda using array and three-component processing

  • Anton M. Dainty


The application of standard array processing techniques to the study of coda presents difficulties due to the design criteria of these techniques. Typically the techniques are designed to analyze isolated, short arrivals with definite phase velocity and azimuth and have been useful in the frequency range around 1 Hz. Coda is long in time and may contain waves of different types, phase velocities and azimuths. Nonetheless, it has proved possible to use or adapt array methods to answer two questions: what types of waves are present in coda and where are they scattered? Most work has been carried out on teleseismicP coda; work on local coda has lagged due to lack of suitable data and the difficulties of dealing with high frequencies. The time domain methods of beamforming and Vespagram analysis have shown that there is coherent energy with a high phase velocity comparable toP orPP in teleseismicP coda. These methods can detect this “coherent” coda because it has a fairly definite phase velocity and the same, or close to, azimuth as firstP orPP. This component must consist ofP waves and is either scattered near the source, or reflected in the mantle path as apdpP or precursorPP reflection. The Fourier transform method of the frequency-wavenumber spectrum has been adapted by integrating around circles of constant phase velocity (constant total wavenumber) to produce the wavenumber spectrum, which shows power as a function of wavenumber, or phase velocity. For teleseismicP coda, wavenumber spectra demonstrate that there is a “diffuse” coda of shear,Lg or surface waves scattered from teleseismicP near the receiver. Wavenumber spectra also suggest that the coherent coda is produced by near-source scattering in the crust, not mantle reflection, since it is absent or weak for deep-focus events. Crustal earthquakes have a very strong coherent component of teleseismic coda, suggesting scattering from shear to teleseismicP near the source. Three-component analysis of single-station data has shown the presence of off-azimuth arrivals and may lead to the identification of waves scattered from a single scatterer.

Key words

Coda arrays three-component scattering phase velocity azimuth 


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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anton M. Dainty
    • 1
  1. 1.Air Force Geophysics Laboratory/LWHHanscom AFBUSA

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