The particle size distributions of fault gouge from the San Andreas, the San Gabriel, and the Lopez Canyon faults in Southern California were measured using sieving and Coulter-Counter techniques over a range of particle sizes from 2 μm to 16 mm. The distributions were found to be power law (fractal) for the smaller fragments and log-normal by mass for sizes near and above the peak size. The apparent fractal dimensionD of the smaller particles in gouge samples from the San Andreas fault, the San Gabriel fault and the Lopez Canyon gouge were 2.4–3.6, 2.6–2.9 and 2.4–3.0, respectively. The averageD for the Lopez Canyon gouge was 2.7±0.2, which is in agreement with earlier studies of this gouge using planar 2-D sections. The fractal dimension of the finer fragments from all three faults is observed to be correlated with the peak fragment size, with finer gouges tending to have a largerD. A computer automaton is used to show that this observation may be explained as resulting from a fragmentation process which has a “grinding limit” at which particle reduction stops.
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An, LJ., Sammis, C.G. Particle size distribution of cataclastic fault materials from Southern California: A 3-D study. PAGEOPH 143, 203–227 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00874329