The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review

, Volume 1, Issue 3–4, pp 291–334 | Cite as

T Tauri stars

  • I. Appenzeller
  • R. Mundt

Key words

star formation pre-main sequence stars circumstellar matter mass loss accretion disks 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abt, H.A.: 1983,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 21, 343Google Scholar
  2. Adams, F.C., Emerson, J.P., Fuller, G.A.: 1990,Astrophys. J., submittedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams, F.C., Shu, F.H.: 1986,Astrophys. J. 308, 836Google Scholar
  4. Adams, F.C., Lada, C.J., Shu, F.H.: 1988,Astrophys. J. 326, 865Google Scholar
  5. Adams, F.C., Ruden, S.P., Shu, F.H.: 1989,Astrophys. J., in pressGoogle Scholar
  6. Adams, F.C., Shu, F.H.: 1988, inComets to Cosmology, ed. A. Lawrence,Springer Lecture Notes in Physics Vol.297, p. 164Google Scholar
  7. Aiad, A., Appenzeller, I., Bertout, C., Isobe, S., Shimizu, M., Stahl, O., Walker, M.F., Wolf, B.: 1984,Astron. Astrophys. 130, 67Google Scholar
  8. Ambartsumian, V.A.: 1947, inStellar Evolution and Astrophysics, Acad. Sci. Armenian SSR, ErevanGoogle Scholar
  9. Ambartsumian, V.A.: 1952,Trans. Int. Astron. Union VIII, 665Google Scholar
  10. Andersen, J., Lindgren, H., Hazen, M.L., Mayor, M.: 1989,Astron. Astrophys. 219, 142Google Scholar
  11. Andrillat, Y.: 1985, inBirth and Evolution of Massive Stars and Stellar Groups, eds. W. Boland and H. van Woerden (D. Reidel, Dordrecht), p. 49Google Scholar
  12. André, P., Montmerle, Th., Feigelson, E.D.: 1987Astron. J. 93, 1182Google Scholar
  13. Appenzeller, I.: 1982,Fund. Cosm. Physics 7, 313Google Scholar
  14. Appenzeller, I.: 1983,Rev. Mexicana Astron. Astrof. 7, 151Google Scholar
  15. Appenzeller, I.: 1986,Physica Scripta T11, 76Google Scholar
  16. Appenzeller, I.: 1988, in Proc. IAU Sytnp. 132,The Impact of Very High S/N Spectroscopy on Stellar Physics, eds. G. Cayrel de Strobel and M. Spite (Kluwer, Dordrecht), p. 87Google Scholar
  17. Appenzeller, I.: 1989, in Proc. 4th IAP Astrophysics Meeting onModelling the Stellar Environment eds. P. Delache, S. Laloë, C. Magnan, J. Tran Thanh Van (Editions Frontieres, Gif-sur-Yvette), p. 47Google Scholar
  18. Appenzeller, I., Bertout, C., Mundt, R., Krautter, J.: 1981,Mitt. Astr. Gesellschaft 52, 15Google Scholar
  19. Appenzeller, I., Chavarria-K., C., Krautter, J., Mundt, R., Wolf, B.: 1980,Astron. Astrophys. 90, 184Google Scholar
  20. Appenzeller, I., Dearborn, D.S.P.: 1984,Astrophys. J. 278, 689Google Scholar
  21. Appenzeller, I., Jankovics, I., Krautter, J.: 1983a,Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 53, 291Google Scholar
  22. Appenzeller, I., Jankovics, L., Jetter, R.: 1986,Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 64, 65Google Scholar
  23. Appenzeller, I., Jankovics, I., Östreicher, R.: 1984,Astron. Astrophys. 141, 408Google Scholar
  24. Appenzeller, I., Krautter, J., Smolinski, J., Wolf, B.: 1980,Astron. Astrophys. 86, 113Google Scholar
  25. Appenzeller, I., Ostreicher, R., Schiffer, J.G., Egge, K.E., Pettersen, B.R.: 1983b,Astron. Astrophys. 118, 75Google Scholar
  26. Appenzeller, I., Reitermann, A., Stahl, O.: 1988,Publ. Astr. Soc. Pacific 100, 815Google Scholar
  27. Appenzeller, I., Wagner, S.: 1989,Astron. Astrophys, in pressGoogle Scholar
  28. Appenzeller, I., Wolf, B.: 1977,Astron. Astrophys. 54, 713Google Scholar
  29. Aspin, C., McLean, I.S., Coyne, G.V.: 1985,Astron. Astrophys. 149, 158Google Scholar
  30. Bahcall, J., Soneira, R.: 1981,Astrophys. J. 246, 122Google Scholar
  31. Baier, G., Bastian, U., Keller, E., Mundt, R., Weigelt, G.: 1985,Astron. Astrophys. 153, 278Google Scholar
  32. Basri, G.: 1988, in Proc. IAU Symp. 132,The Impact of Very High S/N Spectroscopy on Stellar Physics, eds. G. Cayrel de Strobel and M. Spite (Kluwer, Dordrecht), p. 99Google Scholar
  33. Basri, G., Batalha, C.: 1990, in preparationGoogle Scholar
  34. Basri, G., Bertout, C.: 1989,Astrophys. J. 341, 340Google Scholar
  35. Bastian, U., Finkenzeller, U., Jascheck, C., Jascheck, M.: 1983,Astron. Astrophys. 126, 438Google Scholar
  36. Bastian, U., Mundt, R.: 1985,Astron. Astrophys. 144, 57Google Scholar
  37. Bastien, P.: 1981,Astron. Astrophys. 94, 294Google Scholar
  38. Bastien, P.: 1982,Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 48, 153 and 513Google Scholar
  39. Bastien, P.: 1985,Astrophys. J. Suppl. 59, 277Google Scholar
  40. Bastien, P.: 1987,Astrophys. J. 317, 231Google Scholar
  41. Bastien, P.: 1989, inPolarized Radiation of Circumstellar Origin, eds. G.V. Coyneet al. (Vatican City, Vatican Observatory), p. 541Google Scholar
  42. Bastien, P., Landstreet, J.D.: 1979,Astrophys. J. Letters 229, L137Google Scholar
  43. Bastien, P., Ménard, F.: 1988,Astrophys. J. 326, 334Google Scholar
  44. Bastien, P., Ménard, F., Asselin, L., Turbide, L.: 1989b, in Proc. 4th IAP Astrophysics Meeting onModelling the Stellar Environment, eds. P. Delache, S. Laloë, C. Magnan, J. Tran Thanh Van (Editions Frontieres, Gif-sur-Yvette), p. 185Google Scholar
  45. Bastien, P., Robert, C., Nadeau, R.: 1989b,Astrophys. J. 339, 1089Google Scholar
  46. Beckwith, S.V.W., Natta., A.: 1987,Astron. Astrophys. 181, 57Google Scholar
  47. Beckwith, S.V.W., Sargent, A.I., Chini, R., Güsten, R.: 1989b,Astronom. J., in pressGoogle Scholar
  48. Beckwith, S.V.W., Sargent, A.I., Koresko, C.D., Weintraub, D.A.: 1989a,Astrophys. J. 343, 393Google Scholar
  49. Beckwith, S.V.W, Zuckermann, B., Skrutskie, M.F., Dyck, H.M.: 1984,Astrophys. J. 287, 793Google Scholar
  50. Bergner, Yu.K., Miroshnichenko, A.S., Yudin, R.V., Yutanov, N. Yu. Dzhakusheva, K.G., Mukanow, D.B.: 1987,Sov. Astron. Lett. 13, 84Google Scholar
  51. Bertout, C.: 1984,Rep. Prog. Phys. 47, 111Google Scholar
  52. Bertout, C.: 1989,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 27, 351Google Scholar
  53. Bertout, C., Basri, G., Bouvier, J.: 1988Astrophys. J. 330, 350Google Scholar
  54. Bertout, C., Basri, G., Cabrit, S.: 1990, inThe Sun in Time, eds. M.S. Giampapa and G.R. Sonett (Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson), in pressGoogle Scholar
  55. Bertout, C., Carrasco, L., Mundt, R., Wolf, B.: 1982,Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 47, 419Google Scholar
  56. Bertout, C., Krautter, J., Möllenhoff, C., Wolf, B.: 1977,Astron. Astrophys. 61, 737Google Scholar
  57. Bertout, C., Thum, C.: 1982,Astron. Astrophys. 107, 368Google Scholar
  58. Bieging, J.H., Cohen M.: 1985,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 289, L5Google Scholar
  59. Bieging, J.H., Cohen M., Schwartz, P.R.: 1984,Astrophys. J. 282, 699Google Scholar
  60. Bodenheimer, P.: 1965,Astrophys. J. 142, 459Google Scholar
  61. Boesgaard, A.M.: 1984,Astron. J. 89, 1635Google Scholar
  62. Boggende, A.J.F. den, Mewe, R., Gronenschild, E.H.B.M., Heise, J., Grindlay, J.E.: 1978,Astron. Astrophys. 62, 1Google Scholar
  63. Böhm, K.-H.: 1989, in IAU Colloquium No. 120,Structure and Dynamics of the Interstellar Medium, ed. G. Tenorio-Tagle,Springer Lecture Notes in Physics, in pressGoogle Scholar
  64. Boss, A.P.: 1988,Commments in Astrophys. XII, 169Google Scholar
  65. Bouvier, J.: 1987, inProtostars and Molecular Clouds, eds. Th. Montmerle and C. Bertout, (CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette), p. 189Google Scholar
  66. Bouvier, J.: 1989,Astron. J., in pressGoogle Scholar
  67. Bouvier, J., Bertout, C.: 1989,Astron. Astrophys. 221, 99Google Scholar
  68. Bouvier, J., Bertout, C., Benz, W., Mayor, M.: 1986,Astron. Astrophys. 165, 110Google Scholar
  69. Bouvier, J., Bertout, C., Bouchet, P.: 1988,Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 75, 1Google Scholar
  70. Brown, A.: 1986, inCosmic Gas Dynamics, ed. F. Kahn (VNU Science Press, Utrecht), p. 287Google Scholar
  71. Brown, A.: 1987, in IAU Symposium 122,Circumstellar Matter, eds. I. Appenzeller and C. Jordan (D. Reidel, Dordrecht), p. 63Google Scholar
  72. Brown, A., Drake, S.A., Mundt, R.: 1986, inCool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun, eds. M. Zeilik and D.M. Gibson,Springer Lecture Notes in Physics 254, 451Google Scholar
  73. Brown, A., Mundt, R., Drake, S.A.: 1985, inRadio Stars, eds. R.J. Hjellming and D.M. Gibson (D. Reidel, Dordrecht), p. 105Google Scholar
  74. Brown, A., Penston, M.V., Johnstone, R., Jordan, C., Kuin, N.P., Lago, M.T.V.T., Gross, B., Linski, J.L.: 1984, inFuture of UV Astronomy, NASA CP-2349, p. 388Google Scholar
  75. Brown, D.N., Landstreet, J.D.: 1981,Astrophys. J. 246, 899Google Scholar
  76. Bührke, T., Brugel, E.W., Mundt, R.: 1986,Astron. Astrophys. 163, 83Google Scholar
  77. Bukach, A.B., Grinin, V.P., Petrov, P.P., Shakovskaya, N.I.: 1982,Astron. Zh. 8, 172Google Scholar
  78. Byrne, P.B.: 1986,Irish Astron. J. 17, 294Google Scholar
  79. Cabrit, S., Bertout, C.: 1986,Astrophys. J. 307, 313Google Scholar
  80. Cabrit, S., Bertout, C.: 1989,Astrophys. J., in pressGoogle Scholar
  81. Cabrit, S., Edwards, S., Strom, S.E., Strom, K.M.: 1989,Astrophys. J., submittedGoogle Scholar
  82. Calvet, N., Cantó, J., Rodriguez, L.F.: 1983,Astrophys. J. 268, 739Google Scholar
  83. Carr, J.S.: 1988,Thesis, University of Texas, AustinGoogle Scholar
  84. Chavarria-K., C.: 1979,Astron. Astrophys. (Lett.) 79, L18Google Scholar
  85. Chavarria-K., C.: 1981,Astron. Astrophys. 101, 105Google Scholar
  86. Chelli, A., Zinnecker, H., Carrasco, L., Cruz-Gonzalez, I., Perrier, C.: 1988,Astron. Astrophys. 207, 46Google Scholar
  87. Chini, R.: 1989, in Proc. ESO Workshop onLow Mass Star Formation and Pre-main Sequence Objects, ed. B. Reipurth (ESO, Garching), in pressGoogle Scholar
  88. Cohen, M.: 1975,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 173, 279Google Scholar
  89. Cohen, M.: 1983,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 270, L69Google Scholar
  90. Cohen, M.: 1984,Phys. Rep. 116, 173Google Scholar
  91. Cohen, M., Bieging, J.H.: 1986,Astron. J. 92, 1396Google Scholar
  92. Cohen, M., Bieging, J.H., Schwartz, P.R.: 1982,Astrophys. J. 253, 707Google Scholar
  93. Cohen, M., Kuhi, L.V.: 1979,Astrophys. J. Suppl. 41, 743Google Scholar
  94. Cohen, M., Dopita, M.A., Schwartz, R.D.: 1986,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 307, L21Google Scholar
  95. Cohen, M., Emerson, J.P., Beichman, C.A.: 1989,Astrophys. J. 339, 455Google Scholar
  96. Cohen, M., Hollenbach, D.J., Haas, M.R., Erickson, E.F.: 1988,Astrophys. J. 329, 863Google Scholar
  97. Cohen, M., Schmidt, G.D.: 1981,Astron. J. 86, 1228Google Scholar
  98. Cohen, M., Schwartz, R.D.: 1976,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 174, 137Google Scholar
  99. Cohen, Witteborn, F.C.: 1985,Astrophys. J. 294, 345Google Scholar
  100. Cohen, R.J., Rowland, P.R., Blair, M.M.: 1984,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 210, 425Google Scholar
  101. DeCampli, W.M., 1981,Astrophys. J. 244, 124Google Scholar
  102. de la Reza, R., Quast, G. Torres, C.A.O., Mayor, M., Meylan, G., Llorente de Andres, F.: 1986, inNew Insights in Astrophysics, ESA Sp-263, p. 107Google Scholar
  103. de Vegt, C.: 1982,Astron. Astrophys. (Lett.) 109, L15Google Scholar
  104. Dolidzde, M.V., Arakelian, M.S.: 1959,Soviet Astron.-A.J. 3, 434Google Scholar
  105. Drissen, L., Bastien, P., St.-Louis, N.: 1989,Astron. J. 97, 814Google Scholar
  106. Dyck, H.M., Simon, T., Zuckermann, B.: 1982,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 255, L103Google Scholar
  107. Edwards, S., Cabrit, S., Ghandour, L.O., Strom, S.E.: 1989, in Proc. ESO Workshop onLow Mass Star Formation and Pre-main Sequence Objects, ed. B. Reipurth (ESO, Garching), in pressGoogle Scholar
  108. Edwards, S., Cabrit, S., Strom, S.E., Heyer, I., Strom, K.M., Anderson, E.: 1987,Astrophys. J. 321, 473Google Scholar
  109. Edwards, S., Snell, R.L.: 1982,Astrophys. J. 261, 151Google Scholar
  110. Elsässer, H., Staude, H.J.: 1978,Astron. Astrophys. 70, L3Google Scholar
  111. Evans, A., Davies, J.K., Kilkenney, D., Bode, M.F.: 1989,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 237, 695Google Scholar
  112. Evans, N.J., Levreault, R.M., Beckwith, S., Skrutskie, M.: 1987,Astrophys. J. 320, 364Google Scholar
  113. Feigelson, E.D.: 1987, inProtostars and Molecular Clouds, eds. Th. Montmerle and C. Bertout, (CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette), p. 123Google Scholar
  114. Feigelson, E.D.: 1988, inCool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun, eds. J.L. Linski, R.E. Stencel,Springer Lecture Notes in Physics 291, 455Google Scholar
  115. Feigelson, E.D., DeCampli, W.M.: 1981,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 243, L89Google Scholar
  116. Feigelson, E.D., Montmerle, Th.: 1985,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 289, L19Google Scholar
  117. Feigelson, E.D., Kriss, G.A.: 1989,Astrophys. J. 338, 262Google Scholar
  118. Feigelson, E.D., Jackson, J.M., Mathieu, R.D., Myers, P.C., Walter, F.M., 1987,Astron. J. 94, 1251Google Scholar
  119. Felli, M., Gahm, G.F., Harten, R.H., Liseau, R., Panagia, N.: 1982,Astron. Astrophys. 107, 354Google Scholar
  120. Finkenzeller, U., Basri, G.: 1987,Astrophys. J. 318, 823Google Scholar
  121. Finkenzeller, U., Mundt, R.: 1984,Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 55, 109Google Scholar
  122. Franchini, M., Ferluga, S., Stalio, R.: 1989An Atlas of CASPEC Spectra of T Tauri Stars, Department of Astronomy, University of TriesteGoogle Scholar
  123. Franchini, M., Magazzu, A., Stalio, R.: 1988,Astron. Astrophys. 189, 132Google Scholar
  124. Gahm, G.F.: 1980,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 242, L163Google Scholar
  125. Gahm, G.F.: 1988, inFormation and Evolution of Low Mass Stars, eds. A. Dupree and M.T.V.T. Lago (D. Reidel, Dordrecht), p. 295Google Scholar
  126. Gahm, G.F., Nordh, H.L., Olofsson, S.G., Carlborg, N.C.J.: 1974,Astron. Astrophys. 33, 399Google Scholar
  127. Gahm, G.F., Petrov, P.P.: 1983, Proc. IAU Colloqu. No. 71, 497Google Scholar
  128. Gahm, G.F., Fisherström, C., Liseau, R., Lindrooos, K.P.: 1989,Astron. Astrophys. 211, 115Google Scholar
  129. Garay, G., Moran, J.M., Reid, M.J.: 1987,Astrophys. J. 314, 535Google Scholar
  130. Giampapa, M.S., Imhoff, C.L.: 1985, inProtostars and Planets II, ed. D.C. Black and M.S. Matthews (Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson), p.386Google Scholar
  131. Giovannelli, F., Rossi, C., Covino, E., Errico, L., Vittone, A.A., Binovatyi-Kogan, O.S., Kurt, V.G., Sheffer, E.K., Lamzin, S.A.: 1988, inA Decade of UV Astronomy with IUE, ESA-SP281, Vol. 2, p. 101Google Scholar
  132. Gledhill, T.M., Scarrott, S.M.: 1989,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 236, 139Google Scholar
  133. Giedhill, T.M, Warren-Smith, R.F, Scarrott, S.M.: 1986,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 223, 867Google Scholar
  134. Gledhill, T.M., Warren-Smith, R.F., Scarrott, S.M.: 1987,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 229, 643Google Scholar
  135. Götz, W.: 1980,Mitt. Veränderl. Sterne 8, 143Google Scholar
  136. Graham, J.A., Heyer, M.H.: 1989,Publ. Astr. Soc. Pacific 101, 573Google Scholar
  137. Grasdalen, G.L., Strom, S.E., Strom, K.M., Capps, R.W., Thompson, D., Castelaz, M.: 1984,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 283, L57Google Scholar
  138. Grinin, V.P., Petrov, P.P., Shakhovskaja, N.I.: 1985,Bul. Krimean Astrophys. Obs. LXXI, 109Google Scholar
  139. Hamann, F., Simon, M., Ridgway, ST.: 1988,Astrophys. J. 326, 859Google Scholar
  140. Hanson. R.B., Jones, B.F., Lin, D.C.: 1983,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 270, L27Google Scholar
  141. Harris, S., Clegg, P., Hughes, J.: 1988,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 235, 441Google Scholar
  142. Hartigan, P., Hartmann, L., Kenyon, S., Hewet, R., Stauffer, J.: 1989,Astrophys. J. Suppl. 70, 899Google Scholar
  143. Hartigan, P., Mundt, R., Stocke, J.: 1986Astron. J. 91, 1357Google Scholar
  144. Hartmann, L.: 1982,Astrophys. J. Suppl. 48, 109Google Scholar
  145. Hartmann, L.W., Calvet, N., Avrett, E.H., Loeser, R.: 1989,Astrophys. J., in pressGoogle Scholar
  146. Hartmann, L., Edwards, S., Avrett, A.: 1982,Astrophys. J. 261, 279Google Scholar
  147. Hartmann, L.W., Hewett, R. Stahler, S., Mathieu, R.D.: 1986,Astrophys. J. 309, 275Google Scholar
  148. Hartmann, L.W., Kenyon, S.J.: 1985,Astrophys. J. 299, 462Google Scholar
  149. Hartmann, L.W., Kenyon, S.J.: 1987,Astrophys. J. 312, 243Google Scholar
  150. Hartmann, L., Soderblom, D.R., Staufer, J.R.: 1987,Astron. J. 93, 907Google Scholar
  151. Hartmann, L., Staufer, J.R.: 1989,Astron. J. 97, 873Google Scholar
  152. Hartmann, L.W., Raymond, J.C.: 1989,Astrophys. J. 337, 903Google Scholar
  153. Herbig, G.H.: 1945,Publ. str. Soc. Pacific 57, 163Google Scholar
  154. Herbig, G.H.: 1962,Advances in Astron. Astrophys 1, 47Google Scholar
  155. Herbig, G.H.: 1966,Vistas in Astron. 8, 109Google Scholar
  156. Herbig, G.H.: 1977a,Astrophys. J. 214, 747Google Scholar
  157. Herbig, G.H.: 1977b,Astrophys. J. 217, 693Google Scholar
  158. Herbig, G.H.: 1989, in ESO Workshop onLow Mass Star Formation and Pre-Main-Sequence Objects, ed. B. Reipurth, in pressGoogle Scholar
  159. Herbig, G.H., Bell, K.R.: 1988,Lick Observatory Bulletin No. 1111 Google Scholar
  160. Herbig, G.H., Goodrich, R.W.: 1986,Astrophys. J. 309, 294Google Scholar
  161. Herbig, G.H., Soderblom, D.R.: 1980,Astrophys. J. 242, 628Google Scholar
  162. Herbst, W.: 1986,Publ. Astr. Soc. Pacific 98, 1088Google Scholar
  163. Herbst, W., Holtzman, J.A., Phelps, B.E.: 1982,Astron. J. 87, 1710Google Scholar
  164. Herbst, W., Booth, J.F., Chugainov, P.P., Zajtseva, G.V., Barksdale, W., Teranegra, W., Vrba, F.J.: 1986,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 310, L71Google Scholar
  165. Herbst, W., Koret, D.L.: 1988,Astron. J. 96, 1949Google Scholar
  166. Heyer, M.H., Strom, S.E., Strom, K.M.: 1987,Astron. J. 94, 1653Google Scholar
  167. Hiltner, W.A., Iriarte, B.: 1958,Astrophys. J. 127, 510Google Scholar
  168. Hodapp, K.-W: 1984,Astron. Astrophys. 141, 255Google Scholar
  169. Hoffmeister, C.: 1965,Veröffentl. Sonneberg 6, 97Google Scholar
  170. Holtzman, J.A., Herbst, W., Booth, J.: 1986,Astron. J. 92, 1387Google Scholar
  171. Hough, J.H., Bailey, J., Cunningham, E.C., McCall, A., Axon, D.J.: 1981,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 195, 429Google Scholar
  172. Hunger, K.: 1957,Astron. J. 62, 294Google Scholar
  173. Hunger, K., Kron, G.E.: 1957,Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 69, 347Google Scholar
  174. Hutchinson, M.G., Evans, A., Davis, J.K., Bode, M.F.: 1989,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 237, 683Google Scholar
  175. Imhoff, C.L., Appenzeller, I.: 1987, inExploring the Universe with the IUE Satellite, ed. Y. Kondo et al. (Kluwer, Dordrecht), p. 295Google Scholar
  176. Imhoff, C.L., Giampapa, M.S.: 1980,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 239, L115Google Scholar
  177. Imhoff, C.L., Giampapa, M.S.: 1981, in The Universe at Ultraviolet Wavelengths, NASA CP-2171, p. 185Google Scholar
  178. Isobe, S., Norimoto, Y., Kitamura, T.: 1988,Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 40, 89Google Scholar
  179. Jankovics, I., Appenzeller, I., Krautter, J.: 1983,Publ. Astr. Soc. Pacific 95, 883Google Scholar
  180. Johnstone, R.M., Penston, M.V.: 1986,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 219, 929Google Scholar
  181. Johnstone, R.M., Penston, M.V.: 1987,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 227, 797Google Scholar
  182. Jordan, C., Ferraz, M.C. de M., Brown, A.: 1982, inThe Third European IUE Confernce, ESA SP-176, p. 83Google Scholar
  183. Joshi, U.C., Kulkarni, P.V., Deshpande, M.R., Kulshrestha, A.K.: 1987, in IAU Symposium 122,Circumstellar Matter, eds. I. Appenzeller and C. Jordan (D. Reidel, Dordrecht), p. 135Google Scholar
  184. Joy, A.H.: 1945Astrophys. J. 102, 168Google Scholar
  185. Joy, A.H.: 1949Astrophys. J. 110, 424Google Scholar
  186. Joy, A.H., van Biesbroeck, G.: 1944,Publ. Astr. Soc. Pacific 56, 123Google Scholar
  187. Kenyon, S.J., Hartmann, L.: 1987,Astrophys. J. 323, 714Google Scholar
  188. Kenyon, S.J., Hartmann, L., Imhoff, C.L., Cassatella, A.: 1989,Astrophys. J. 344, 925Google Scholar
  189. Kilyachkov, N.N., Shevchenko, V.S.: 1976,Sov. Astron. Lett. 2, 193Google Scholar
  190. Kolotilov, E.A.: 1987,Sov. Astron. Lett. 13, 16Google Scholar
  191. Koupelis, T., van Horn, H.M.: 1988Astrophys. J. 324, 93Google Scholar
  192. Krautter, J.: 1986,Astron. Astrophys. 161, 195Google Scholar
  193. Krautter, J., Bastian, U.: 1980,Astron. Astrophys. (Lett.) 88, L6Google Scholar
  194. Ku, W.H., Chanan, G.A.: 1979,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 288, L33Google Scholar
  195. Kuhi, L.V.: 1964,Astrophys. J. 140, 1409Google Scholar
  196. Kuhi, L.V.: 1983,Rev. Mexicana Astron. Astrof. 7, 127Google Scholar
  197. Kutner, M.L., Leung, C.M., Machnik, D.E., Mead, K.N.: 1982,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 259, L35Google Scholar
  198. Kwan, J., Tademaru, E.: 1988,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 332, L41Google Scholar
  199. Lada, C.J.: 1985,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 23, 267Google Scholar
  200. Lago, M.T.V.T.: 1982,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 198, 445Google Scholar
  201. Lago, M.T.V.T., Penston, M.V., Johnstone, R.M.: 1984, in The Fourth European IUE Conference, ESA SP-218 p. 233Google Scholar
  202. Larson, R.B.: 1969,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 145, 271Google Scholar
  203. Leinert, C., Haas, M.: 1989,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 342, L39Google Scholar
  204. Levreault, R.M.: 1988,Astrophys. J. Suppl. 67, 283Google Scholar
  205. Lindroos, K.P.: 1986,Astron. Astrophys. 156, 223Google Scholar
  206. Liseau, R.: Fischerström, C., Gahm, G.F.: 1987,Astron. Astrophys. 183, 274Google Scholar
  207. Marshall, L.M., Mathieu, R.D.: 1988,Astron. J. 96, 1956Google Scholar
  208. Mathieu, R.D.: 1989, inHighlights of Astronomy, ed. D. McNally (D. Reidel, Dordrecht), p.111Google Scholar
  209. Mathieu, R.D., Walter, F.M., Myers, P.C.: 1989,Astron. J. 98, 987Google Scholar
  210. Mathieu, R.D., Hartmann, L., Latham, D.W., Stahler, S.: 1990, in preparationGoogle Scholar
  211. Ménard, F., Bastien, P.: 1987, in IAU Symposium 122,Circumstellar Matter, eds. I. Appenzeller and C. Jordan (Dordrecht, Reidel), p. 133Google Scholar
  212. Mendoza, E.E.: 1966,Astrophys. J. 143, 1010Google Scholar
  213. Mendoza, E.E.: 1968,Astrophys. J. 151, 977Google Scholar
  214. Mestel, L.: 1968,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 138, 358Google Scholar
  215. Moneti, A., Pipher, J.L., Helfer, H.L., McMillan, R.S., Perry, M.L.: 1984,Astrophys. J. 282, 508Google Scholar
  216. Moneti, A., Zinnecker, H.: 1989, preprintGoogle Scholar
  217. Monin, J.-L., Pudritz, R.E., Rouan, D., Lacombe, F.: 1989,Astron. Astrophys. (Lett.) 215, LlGoogle Scholar
  218. Montmerle, Th., Koch-Miramond, L., Falgarone, E., Grindlay, J.: 1983,Astrophys. J. 269, 182Google Scholar
  219. Mundt, R.: 1979,Astron. Astrophys. 74, 21Google Scholar
  220. Mundt, R.: 1984,Astrophys. J. 280, 749Google Scholar
  221. Mundt, R.: 1985, inProtostars and Planets II, eds. D. Black and M. Matthews (University of Arizona Press, Tucson), p. 414Google Scholar
  222. Mundt, R.: 1987,in IAU Symposium 122,Circumstellar Matter, eds. I. Appenzeller and C. Jordan (D. Reidel, Dordrecht), p. 147Google Scholar
  223. Mundt, R.: 1988, in NATO-ASI onFormation and Evolution of Low Mass Stars, eds. A. Dupree and M.T.V.T. Lago (Kluwer, Dordrecht), p. 257Google Scholar
  224. Mundt, R., Fried, J.W.: 1983,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 274, L83Google Scholar
  225. Mundt, R., Giampapa, M.S.: 1982Astrophys. J. 256, 156Google Scholar
  226. Mundt, R., Brugel, E.W., Bührke, T.: 1987,Astrophys. J. 319, 275Google Scholar
  227. Mundt, R., Ray, T.P., Bührke, T.: 1988,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 333, L69Google Scholar
  228. Mundt, R., Ray, TR, Bührke, T., Raga, A.C., Solf, J.: 1989,Astron. Astrophys., in pressGoogle Scholar
  229. Mundt, R., Solf, J., Ray, T.P.: 1990, in prep.Google Scholar
  230. Mundt, R., Stocke, J., Stockmann, H.S.: 1983b,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 265, L71Google Scholar
  231. Mundt, R., Walter, F.M., Feigelson, E.D., Finkenzeller, U. Herbig, G.H. Odell, A.P.: 1983a,Astrophys. J. 269, 229Google Scholar
  232. Myers, P.C., Heyer, M., Snell, R.L., Goldsmith, P.F.: 1988,Astrophys. J. 324, 907Google Scholar
  233. Nadeau, R., Bastien, P.: 1986,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 307, L5Google Scholar
  234. Nagata, T., Sato, S., Kobayashi, Y.: 1983,Astron, Astrophys. (Lett.) 119, L1Google Scholar
  235. Natta, A.: 1989, in ESO Workshop onLow Mass Star Formation and Pre-Main Sequence Objects, ed. B. Reipurth, in pressGoogle Scholar
  236. Natta, A., Giovanardi, C.: 1989,Astrophys. J., submittedGoogle Scholar
  237. Nisenson, P., Stachnik, R.V., Karovska, M., Noyes, R.: 1985,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 297, L17Google Scholar
  238. Norman, C.: 1987, inIAU Symposium 122, Circumstellar Matter, eds. I. Appenzeller and C. Jordan (D. Reidel, Dordrecht), p. 51Google Scholar
  239. Panagia, N.: 1988, inGalactic and Extragalactic Star Formation, eds. R.E. Pudritz and M. Fich (Kluwer, Dordrecht), p. 25Google Scholar
  240. Penston, M.V., Lago, M.T.V.T.: 1982, in The Third European IUE Conference, ESA SP-176, p.95Google Scholar
  241. Penston, M.V., Lago, M.T.V.T.: 1983,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 202, 77Google Scholar
  242. Pettersson, B.: 1987,Astron. Astrophys. 171, 101Google Scholar
  243. Pringle, J.E.: 1989a,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 236, 107Google Scholar
  244. Pringle, J.E.: 1989b,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 239, 361Google Scholar
  245. Pudritz, R.E.: 1988 inGalactic and Extragalactic Star Formation, ed. R.E. Pudritz and M. Fich (Kluwer, Dordrecht) p. 135Google Scholar
  246. Pudritz, R.E., Norman, C.: 1983,Astrophys. J. 274, 677Google Scholar
  247. Pudritz, R.E., Norman, C.: 1986,Astrophys. J. 301, 571Google Scholar
  248. Raga, A.: 1989,Astrophys. J., in pressGoogle Scholar
  249. Reipurth, B.: 1988, in NATO-ASI onFormation and Evolution of Low-Mass Stars, eds. A.K. Dupree and M.T. Lago (Kluwer, Dordrecht), p. 305Google Scholar
  250. Reipurth, B.: 1989a, private communicationGoogle Scholar
  251. Reipurth, B.: 1989b,Astron. Astrophys. 220, 249Google Scholar
  252. Reipurth, B., Bally, J., Graham, J.A., Lane, A., Zealey, W.J.: 1986,Astron. Astrophys. 164, 51Google Scholar
  253. Reipurth, B., Graham, J.A.: 1988,Astron. Astrophys. 202, 219Google Scholar
  254. Reipurth, B., Zinnecker, H.: 1990, in preparationGoogle Scholar
  255. Retterer, J.M., King, I.R.: 1982,Astrophys. J. 254, 214Google Scholar
  256. Reynolds, S.P.: 1986,Astrophys. J. 304, 713Google Scholar
  257. Rodriguez, L.F., Cantó, J., Torrelles, J.M., Ho, P.T.P.: 1986,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 301, L25Google Scholar
  258. Rucinski, S.: 1985,Astron. J. 90, 2321Google Scholar
  259. Rydgren, A.E., Cohen, M.: 1985, inProtostars and Planets II, ed. D.C. Black and M.S. Matthews (Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson), p. 371Google Scholar
  260. Rydgren, A.E., Strom, S.E., Strom, K.M.: 1976,Astrophys. J. Suppl. 267, 191Google Scholar
  261. Rydgren, A.E., Schmelz, J.T., Zak, D.S.: 1984a,Publ. US Naval Observatory Sec. Ser. Vol.XXV, Part 1Google Scholar
  262. Rydgren, A.E., Vrba, F.J.: 1983,Astrophys. J. 267, 191Google Scholar
  263. Rydgren, A.E., Zak, D.S.: 1987Publ. Astr. Soc. Pacific 99, 141Google Scholar
  264. Rydgren, A.E., Schmelz, J.T., Zak, D.S., Vrba, F.J., Chugainov, P.P., Zajtseva, G.V.: 1984b,Astron. J. 89, 1015Google Scholar
  265. Sá, C., Penston, M.V, Lago, M.T.V.T.: 1986,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 222, 213Google Scholar
  266. Sargent, A.I., Beckwith, S.: 1987,Astrophys. J. 323, 294Google Scholar
  267. Schaefer, B.: 1983,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 266, L45Google Scholar
  268. Schneeberger, TJ., Worden, S.T, Wilkerson, M.S.: 1979,Astrophys. J. Suppl. 30, 307Google Scholar
  269. Schulte-Ladbeck, R.: 1983,Astron. Astrophys. 120, 203Google Scholar
  270. Schwartz, P.R., Simon, T., Zuckermann, B., Howell, R.R.: 1984,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 280, L23Google Scholar
  271. Schwartz, P.R., Simon, T., Campbell, R.: 1986,Astrophys. J. 303, 233Google Scholar
  272. Schwartz, R.D.: 1983,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 21, 209Google Scholar
  273. Schwartz, R.D., Heuermann, R.W.: 1981,Astron. J. 86, 1526Google Scholar
  274. Serkowski, K.: 1969,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 156, L55Google Scholar
  275. Shu, F.H., Adams, F.C.: 1987, inIAU Symposium 122, Circumstellar Matter, eds. I. Appenzeller and C. Jordan (Dordrecht, Reidel), p. 7Google Scholar
  276. Shu, F.C., Adams, F.C., Lizano, S.: 1987,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 25, 23Google Scholar
  277. Simon M., Howell, R.R., Longmore, A.J., Wilking, B.A., Peterson, D.M., Chen, W.-P.: 1987,Astrophys. J. 320, 344Google Scholar
  278. Simon, M.: 1989, inHighlights of Astronomy, ed. D. McNally (D. Reidel, Dordrecht), p. 117Google Scholar
  279. Solf, J.: 1989, in ESO Workshop onLow Mass Star Formation and Pre-Main Sequence Objects, ed. B. Reipurth, in pressGoogle Scholar
  280. Spencer, J.H., Schwartz, P.R.: 1974,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 188, L105Google Scholar
  281. Stine, P.C., Feigelson, E.D., André, P., Montmerle, T.: 1988,Astron. J. 96, 1394Google Scholar
  282. Strom, K.M., Strom, S.E., Kenyon, S.J., Hartman, L.: 1988,Astron. J. 95, 534Google Scholar
  283. Strom, K.M., Strom, S.E., Edwards, S., Cabrit, S., Skrutskie, M.F.: 1989a,Astron. J. 97, 1451Google Scholar
  284. Strom, K.M., Wilkin, F.P, Strom, S.E., Seaman, R.L.: 1989b, Five College Astronomy Preprint No. 694Google Scholar
  285. Strom, K.M., Newton, G., Strom, S.E., Seaman, L., Carrasco, L., Cruz-Gonzalez, I., Serrano, A., Grasdalen, G.L.: 1990, preprintGoogle Scholar
  286. Strom, S.E., Strom, K.M.: 1987, inStar Forming Regions, eds. M. Peimbert and J. Jugaku (D. Reidel, Dordrecht), p. 255Google Scholar
  287. Strom, S.E., Strom, K.M., Wolff, S.C., Morgan, J., Wenz, M.: 1986,Astrophys. J. Suppl. 62, 39Google Scholar
  288. Terebey, S., Vogel, S.N., Myers, P.C.: 1989,Astrophys. J. 340, 472Google Scholar
  289. Thompson, R.I.: 1987,Astrophys. J. 312, 784Google Scholar
  290. Tscharnuter, W.: 1987,Astron. Astrophys. 188, 55Google Scholar
  291. Uchida, Y.: 1989, in Proc. 4th IAP Astrophysics Meeting onModelling the Stellar Environment, eds. P. Delache, S. Laloë, C. Magnan, J. Tran Thanh Van (Editions Frontieres, Gif-sur-Yvette), p. 127Google Scholar
  292. Uchida, Y., Shibata, K.: 1985,Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 37, 515Google Scholar
  293. Ulrich, R., Knapp, G.R.: 1979,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 230, L99Google Scholar
  294. Vardanian, R.A.: 1964,Soobschch. Bjurak. Obs. 35, 3Google Scholar
  295. Vogel, S., Kuhi, L.V.: 1981,Astrophys. J. 245, 960Google Scholar
  296. von Hoerner, S.: 1968, inInterstellar Ionized Hydrogen, ed. V. Terzian (Benjamin, New York), p. 101Google Scholar
  297. Vrba, F.J., Herbst, W., Booth, J.F.: 1988,Astron. J. 96, 1032Google Scholar
  298. Vrba, F.J., Rydgren, A.E., Chugainov, P.P., Shakhovskaja, N.I., Weaver W.B.: 1989,Astron. J. 97, 483Google Scholar
  299. Vrba, F.J., Luginbuhl, C.B., Strom, S.E., Strom, K.M., Heyer, M.J.: 1986,Astron. J. 92, 633Google Scholar
  300. Walker, M.F.: 1972,Astrophys. J. 175, 89Google Scholar
  301. Walker, M.F.: 1987,Publ. Astr. Soc. Pacific 99, 392Google Scholar
  302. Walker, M.F.: 1980,Publ. Astr. Soc. Pacific 92, 66Google Scholar
  303. Walter, F.M.: 1986,Astrophys. J. 306, 573Google Scholar
  304. Walter, F.M.: 1987,Publ. Astr. Soc. Pacific 99, 31Google Scholar
  305. Walter, F.M.: 1988, inCool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun, eds. J.L. Linski and R.E. Stencel,Springer Lecture Notes in Physics 291, 451Google Scholar
  306. Walter, F.M., Brown, A., Mathieu, R.D, Myers, P.C., Vrba, F.J.: 1988,Astron. J. 96, 297Google Scholar
  307. Walter, F.M., Kuhi, L.V.: 1981,Astrophys. J. 250, 254Google Scholar
  308. Walter, F.M., Kuhi, L.V.: 1984,Astrophys. J. 284, 194Google Scholar
  309. Weintraub, D., Sandell, D., Duncan, W.D.: 1989,Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 340, L69Google Scholar
  310. Whittet, D.C.B., Bode, M.V., Longmore, A.J., Adamson, A.J., McFadzean, A.D., Aitken, D.K., Roche, P.F.: 1988,Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 233, 321Google Scholar
  311. Wilking, B.A., Lada, C.: 1985, inProtostars and Planets II, eds. D.C. Black and M.S. Matthews (University of Arizona Press, Tucson), p. 297Google Scholar
  312. Wilking, B.A., Schwartz, R.D., Blackwell, J.H.: 1987,Astron. J. 94, 106Google Scholar
  313. Wolstencroft, R.D.: 1985, inCosmical Gas Dynamics, ed. F.D. Kahn (VNU, Utrecht), p. 251Google Scholar
  314. Worden, S.P., Schneeberger, T.J., Kuhn, J.R., Africano, J.L.: 1981,Astrophys. J. 244, 520Google Scholar
  315. Yudin, R.V.: 1988,Sov. Astron. 32, 652Google Scholar
  316. Zajtseva, G.V., Lyutyi, V.M.: 1976,Perem. Zv. 20, 255Google Scholar
  317. Zajtseva, G.V., Kolotilov, E.A., Petrov, P.P., Tarasov, A.E., Shenavrin, V.I., Sherbakov, A.G.: 1985,Sou. Astron. Lett. 11, 109Google Scholar
  318. Zinnecker, H.: 1989, in ESO Workshop onLow Mass Star Formation and Pre-Main-Sequence Objects, ed. B. Reipurth, in pressGoogle Scholar
  319. Zinnecker, H., Perrier, C.: 1988,ESO Messenger 51, 31Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Appenzeller
    • 1
  • R. Mundt
    • 2
  1. 1.LandessternwarteHeidelberg 1Federal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Max-Planck-Institut für AstronomieHeidelberg 1Federal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations