Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 93–104 | Cite as

The tyranny of change: Organizational Development revisited

  • Marie McKendall
Article

Abstract

The premise of this paper is that planned organizational change, commonly known as organizational development, induces compliance and conformity in organizational members and thereby increases the power of management. These consequences occur because organizational development efforts create uncertainty, interfere with the informal organization, reinforce the position of management, and further entrench management purposes. These consequences occur regardless of the intentions of management and regardless of whether the goals of the organizational development intervention were achieved. Instead of examining these consequences, practitioners and theorists have engaged in self-deception and depoliticized the practice of induced organizational change by creating a field known as Organizational Development.

Keywords

Economic Growth Organizational Development Development Effort Organizational Change Development Intervention 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albanese, R.: 1970, ‘Overcoming Resistance to Stability’,Business Horizons 13, pp. 35–45.Google Scholar
  2. Baritz, L.: 1960,Servants of Power (Wesleyan University Press, Connecticut).Google Scholar
  3. Beckhard, R.: 1969,OD: Strategies and Models (Addison-Westley, Massachusetts).Google Scholar
  4. Bennet, T., III: 1961,Planning for Change (Leadership Resources, Washington D.C.).Google Scholar
  5. Bennis, W.: 1969,Organizational Development: Its Nature, Origins, and Prospects (Addison-Westley, Massachusetts).Google Scholar
  6. Bermant, G. and D. Warwick: 1978, ‘The Ethics of Social Intervention: Power, Freedom, and Accountability’, in G. Bermant, H. Kelman, and D. Warwick (eds.),The Ethics of Social Intervention (Hemisphere Publishing, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  7. Blake, R. and J. Mouton: 1982,Productivity: The Human Side (Amacom, New York).Google Scholar
  8. Blau, P.: 1964,Exchange and Power in Social Life (Wiley, London).Google Scholar
  9. Brimm, M.: 1972, ‘When is a Change not a Change’,Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 8, pp. 102–107.Google Scholar
  10. Chesler, M. and O. Worden: 1974, ‘Persistent Problems in Power and Social Change’,Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 10, pp. 462–472.Google Scholar
  11. Clegg, S. and D. Dunkerley: 1980,Organization, Class and Control (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London).Google Scholar
  12. Crozier, M.: 1964,The Bureaucratic Phenomenon (Tavistock, London).Google Scholar
  13. Emerson, R.: 1962, ‘Power-Dependency Relations’,American Sociological Review 27, pp. 31–41.Google Scholar
  14. French, W. and C. Bell Jr.: 1990,Organizational Development: Behavioral Science Interventions for Organization Improvement (Prentice-Hall, New Jersey).Google Scholar
  15. French, J. and B. Raven: 1959, ‘The Bases of Social Power’, in D. Cartwright (ed.),Studies in Social Power (Institute of Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor).Google Scholar
  16. Friedlander, F. and L. Brown: 1974, ‘Organizational Development’,Annual Review of Psychology (Annual Reviews, California).Google Scholar
  17. Gibson, T.: 1983, ‘The Effects of Perceived Frequency of Organizational Change on Role Clarity and Job Satisfaction of Public Sector Employees’,Journal of Social Service Research 6, pp. 17–35.Google Scholar
  18. Guzzo, R., R. Jette and R. Katzel: 1985, ‘The Effects of Psychologically Based Intervention Programs on Worker Productivity: A Meta-Analysis’,Personnel Psychology 38, pp. 275–291.Google Scholar
  19. Hall, D., S. Rabinowitz, J. Goodale, and M. Morgan: 1978, ‘Effects of Top-Down Departmental and Job Change Upon Perceived Employee Behavior and Attitudes: A Natural Field Experiment’,Journal of Applied Psychology 1, pp. 62–72.Google Scholar
  20. Hickson, D., C. Hinings, C. Lee, R. Schneck, and J. Pennings: 1971, ‘A Strategic Contingencies Theory of Intraorganizational Power’,Administrative Science Quarterly 17, pp. 216–229.Google Scholar
  21. Hoffer, E.: 1963,The Ordeal of Change (Harper and Row, New York).Google Scholar
  22. Holmes, T. and R. Rahe: 1967, ‘The Social Readjustment Rating Scale’,Journal of Psychosomatic Research 11, pp. 213–218.Google Scholar
  23. Jacobs, D.: 1974, ‘Dependency and Vulnerability: An Exchange Approach to the Control of Organizations’,Administrative Society Quarterly 20, pp. 45–59.Google Scholar
  24. Kaplan, A.: 1964, ‘Power in Perspective’, in R. Kahn and E. Boulding (eds.),Power and Conflict in Organizations (Tavistock, London).Google Scholar
  25. Kelman, H.: 1965, ‘Manipulation of Human Behavior: An Ethical Dilemma for the Social Scientist’,Journal of Social Issues 21, pp. 31–46.Google Scholar
  26. Kelman, H. and D. Warwick: 1978, ‘The Ethics of Social Intervention: Goals, Means, and Consequences’, in G. Zaltman (ed.),Processes and Phenomena of Social Change (Wiley, New York).Google Scholar
  27. King, A.: 1974, ‘Expectation Effects in Organizational Change’,Administrative Science Quarterly 20, pp. 221–230.Google Scholar
  28. Kirkpatrick, D.: 1986,How to Manage Change Effectively (Jossey-Bass, California).Google Scholar
  29. Lawler, E., J. Hackman and S. Kaufman: 1973, ‘Effects of Job Redesign: A Field Experiment’,Journal of Applied Social Psychology 3, pp. 49–62.Google Scholar
  30. Lippitt, R.: 1981,Making Organizations Humane and Productive (Wiley, New York).Google Scholar
  31. Mannheim, K.: 1941, ‘Man and Society in an Age of Reconstruction’, in W. Bennis, K. Benne and R. Chin (eds),The Planning of Change (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York).Google Scholar
  32. Mayo, E.: 1975,The Social Problems of Industrial Civilization (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London).Google Scholar
  33. Nadler, D.: 1981, ‘Managing Organizational Change: An Integrative Perspective’,Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 17, pp. 191–211.Google Scholar
  34. Nadler, D. and P. Pecorella: 1975, ‘Differential Effects of Multiple Interventions in an Organization’,Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 11, pp. 348–366.Google Scholar
  35. Nicholas, J.: 1982, ‘The Comparative Impact of Organization Development Interventions on Hard Criteria Measures’,Academy of Management Review 7, pp. 531–542.Google Scholar
  36. Odirone, G.: 1981,The Change Resistors (Prentice-Hall, New Jersey).Google Scholar
  37. Parsons, T.: 1937,The Structure of Social Action (Free Press, Illinois).Google Scholar
  38. Porras, J. and O. Berg: 1978, ‘Evaluation Methodology in Organizational Development’,Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 14, pp. 151–173.Google Scholar
  39. Porras, J., P. Robertson and L. Goldman: 1991, ‘Organization Development: Theory, Practice, and Research’, in M. Dunnette (ed.),Handbook of Industrial/Organizational Psychology (Consulting Psychologists Press, California).Google Scholar
  40. Ramsay, H.: 1977, ‘Cycles of Control: Worker Participation in Sociological and Historical Perspective’,Sociology, pp. 481–506.Google Scholar
  41. Rosner, M.: 1980, ‘Self Management in Kibbutz Industry: Organizational Patterns as Determinants of Psychological Effects’, in U. Leviatan and M. Rosner (eds.),Work and Organization in Kibbutz Industry (Northwood Editions, Pennsylvania).Google Scholar
  42. Russell, R., A. Hochner and S. Perry: 1979, ‘Participation, Influence and Worker-Ownership’,Industrial Relations 8, pp. 330–341.Google Scholar
  43. Silverman, D.: 1970,The Theory of Organizations (Heinemann, London).Google Scholar
  44. Strauss, G.: 1963, ‘Some Notes on Power Equalization’, in H. Leavitt (ed.),The Social Science of Organizations: Four Perspectives (Prentice-Hall, New Jersey).Google Scholar
  45. Thibaut, J. and H. Kelly: 1959,The Social Psychology of Groups (Wiley, New York).Google Scholar
  46. Walter, G.: 1984, ‘OD and Individual Rights’,Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 20, pp. 423–439.Google Scholar
  47. Walton, R.: 1978, ‘Ethical Issues in the Practice of Organizational Development’, in G. Bermant, H. Kelman and D. Warwick (eds.),The Ethics of Social Intervention (Hemisphere Publishing, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  48. Warwick, D.: 1978, ‘Moral Dilemmas in Organizational Development’, in G. Bermant, H. Kelman and D. Warwick (eds.),The Ethics of Social Intervention (Hemisphere Publishing, Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
  49. Warwick, D. and H. Kelman: 1973, ‘Ethical Issues in Social Intervention’, in G. Zaltman (eds.),Process and Phenomena of Social Change (John Wiley & Sons, New York).Google Scholar
  50. Watson, G.: 1969, ‘Resistance to Change’, in W. Bennis, K. Benne and R. Chin (eds.),The Planning of Change (Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York).Google Scholar
  51. Watzlawick, P., J. Weakland and R. Fisch: 1974,Change (W.W. Norton and Company, New York).Google Scholar
  52. Weisbord, M.: 1974, ‘The Gap Between Organizational Development Practice and Theory’,Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 10, pp. 476–484.Google Scholar
  53. Williams, R. and R. Witte: 1978, ‘Education as a Force for Change in Mental Health Settings’,Community Mental Health Journal 2, pp. 123–132.Google Scholar
  54. Woodworth, W., G. Meyer and N. Smallwood: 1982, ‘Organization Development: A Closer Scrutiny’,Human Relations 4, pp. 307–319.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie McKendall
    • 1
  1. 1.School of BusinessGrand Valley State UniversityAllendaleUSA

Personalised recommendations