, Volume 74, Issue 3, pp 329–347 | Cite as

Met aknowledge: Undefeated justification

  • Keith Lehrer


Internalism and externalism are both false. What is needed to convert true belief into knowledge is the appropriate blend of subjective and objective factors to yield the appropriate sort of connection between mind and the world. The sort of knowledge explicated is calledmetaknowledge and is knowledge that involves the evaluation of incoming information in terms of a background system. It is proposed that knowledge is equivalent to undefeated justification which is justification on the basis of every system that eliminates or corrects any error in what a person accepts. The system of such system is called the ultrasystem of the person. This account appeals both to internal factors and external factors and involves appeal to both normative requirements and empirical constraints. Justification is defined in terms of a comparative notion of rationality adapted from Chisholm.


External Factor True Belief Internal Factor Objective Factor Incoming Information 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keith Lehrer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of Arizona and University of GrazTusconUSA

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