The scyphozoan medusaCassiopea andromeda forms free swimming planulae and buds that metamorphose into tentacle bearing sedentary polyps. About 30% of the planulae and 7% of the buds undergo such metamorphosis within 30 days in sterile natural seawater from the Red Sea. In sterile artificial sea water devoid of any organic substances, normal metamorphosis does not take place. This indicates that both the planulae and the buds require organic morphogenetic inducers present in the sea to settle and metamorphose. The addition of cholera toxin or thyrotropin to preparations of sterile artificial sea water, induced normal metamorphosis. These inducers enhanced the rate of metamorphosis and up to 100% of the planulae and buds formed polyps within 2–18 days. We conclude that our preparations of cholera toxin and thyrotropin mimic the action of natural inducers.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Craig JP (1965) A permeability factor (toxin) found in cholera stools and culture filtrates and its neuralization by convalescent cholera sera. Nature 207:614–616
Daniel CW, Silberstein GB, Strickland P (1984) Reinitiation of growth in senescent mouse mammary epithelium in response to cholera toxin. Science 224:1245–1247
Gohar HAF, Eisawy AM (1960) The development ofCassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusae). Publ Mar Biol Stn Ghardaqhua 11:148–190
Hashimoto PH, Takaesu S, Chazono N, Amano T (1974) Vascular leakage through intraendothelial channels induced by cholertoxin in the skin of Guinea pigs. Am J Pathol 75:171–180
Hofmann DK, Neumann R, Henne K (1978) Strobilation and initiation of scyphystoma morphogenesis in the rhizostomeCassiopea andromeda (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Mar Biol 47:161–176
Holmgren J (1981) Action of cholera toxin and the prevention and treatment of cholera. Nature 292:413–417
Neumann R (1979) Bacterial induction of settlement and metamorphosis in the planula larvae ofCassiopea andromeda (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 1:21–28
Neumann R, Schmahl G, Hofmann DK (1980) Bud formation and control of polyp morphogenesis inCassiopea andromeda. In: P. Tardent, R. Tardent (eds) Developmental and cellular biology of Coelenterates. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp 217–223
O'Keefe E, Cuatrecasas P (1974) Cholera toxin mimics melanocyte stimulation hormone in inducing differentiation in melanoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:2500–2504
O'Keefe E, Cuatrecasas P (1978) Cholera toxin and membrane gangliosides binding and adenylate cyclase activation in normal and transformed cells. J Mar Biol 42:61–79
Ouchterlony O, Nilson LA (1978) In: Weir DM (ed) Handbook of experimental immunology. Oxford, Blackwell
Richards KL, Douglas SD (1978) Pathophysiological effects ofVibrio cholera and enterotoxigenicEscherichia coli and their exotoxins on eukaryotic cells. Microbiol Rev 42:592–613
Roger PP, Dumont JE (1984) Factors controlling proliferation and differentiation of canine thyroid cells cultured in reduced serum albumins: effects of thyrotropin, cyclic AMP and growth factors. Mol Cell Endocrin 36:79–93
Specht DT, Miller WE (1974) Modified Burkholder's artificial sea water. Proc Seminar Methodol Monit Mar Environ. US Environment Protection Agency, Washington D.C.
Wishnaw RM, Lifrak E, Chen CC (1976) Mode of action ofVibrio cholera enterotoxin in cultured adrenal tumor cells. J Infect Dis [Suppl] 133:108–114
About this article
Cite this article
Wolk, M., Rahat, M., Fitt, W.K. et al. Cholera toxin and thyrotropine can replace natural inducers required for the metamorphosis of larvae and buds of the scyphozoanCassiopea andromeda . Wilhelm Roux' Archiv 194, 487–490 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00868150
- Cholera toxin