Applied Scientific Research

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 187–210 | Cite as

A study of unsteady wake flows past a two-dimensional square cylinder with and without planar jet injection into the vortex formation region

  • P. Koutmos
  • C. Mavridis
  • D. Papailiou


The present work describes the study of unsteady turbulent wake flows past two-dimensional square cylinders with and without planar jet injection into the vortex formation region. An experimental investigation provided LDV measurements of the mean and turbulent near and middle wake development at Reynolds numbers of 8520 and 14285 and for various jet to approach flow velocity ratios. In the computational work a Large Eddy Simulation employing the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model was initially performed for the higher Reynolds number plane wake configuration. Further, a hybrid phase-averaged Navier-Stokes model was formulated that encompasses aspects from both the LES formalism and the conventional eddy-viscosity procedures. Comparisons of the hybrid model calculations with the LES and measurements demonstrated the ability of the hybrid method to reproduce the range of complex unsteady flow phenomena studied here.

Key words

bluff-body wake flow LES of vortex shedding flow hybrid eddy-viscosity models 



Courant number


drag coefficient


Smagorinsky's model coefficient


pressure coefficient


turbulent viscosity coefficient


square cylinder diameter




channel height


turbulence kinetic energy


turbulence length scales




approach flow velocity


static pressure


Strouhal number


characteristic time (D/U0)


coordinate directions (i=1,2,3)

Greek symbols


Kronecker delta (δ ij =0 forij;δ ij =1 fori=j)


eddy-viscosity coefficient


non-dimensional diffusion coefficient




subgrid-stress tensor




\(\bar \cdot\)


\(\tilde \cdot\)

grid-scale velocity (LES)


turbulent fluctuation


subgrid-scale fluctuation (LES)


periodic fluctuation



explicitly (cumulatively) calculated


1, 2, 3 Cartesian coordinates


tensor notation


turbulent flow, total


subgrid (e.g.kSGS)


characteristic filter length


turbulence energy dissipation rate


molecular viscosity



wall coordinates


time level


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Koutmos
    • 1
  • C. Mavridis
    • 1
  • D. Papailiou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of PatrasPatras, RioGreece

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