Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 97–106 | Cite as

Effects of tropospheric aerosols on the solar radiative heating in a clear atmosphere

  • C. M. Liu
  • S. S. Ou


The broadband solar absorptivity concept is employed to parameterize the aerosol absorption effect. The solar radiation model developed by Liou and his associates was modified to incorporate the parameterization of solar radiative transfer in an aerosol layer. Comparison of the results from this method with other schemes exhibits close agreement. A Sahara dust storm case was also chosen to test the performance of the present model, and the computed heating rate profiles agree well with calculations based on optical properties derived from observations for both clear and dust cases. In general, enhanced heating due to aerosol absorption of solar flux occurs particularly in the lower troposphere (below 5 km). The heating rate is independent of the scattering partition factor (ξ), but the planetary albedo increases with ξ. Further study shows that the aerosol heating is sensitive to the surface albedo (r s ) and to the cosine of the solar zenith angle (µ0). The decrease inrs and/or increase inµ0 lower the solar heating rate, the planetary albedo and the atmospheric absorptivity, but raise the surface absorptivity due to reduced multiple reflection between the atmosphere and surface.


Dust Storm Aerosol Absorption Solar Zenith Angle Aerosol Layer Solar Absorptivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Charlock, T. P., Sellers, W. D., 1980: Aerosol effects on climate: Calculations with time-dependent and steadystate radiative-convective models.J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 1327–1341.Google Scholar
  2. Chylek, P., Coakley, J. A., Jr., 1974: Aerosols and climate.Science 183, 75–77.Google Scholar
  3. Coakley, J. A., Jr., Cess, R. D., 1983: The effect of tropospheric aerosols on the earth's radiation budget: A parameterization for climate models.J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 116–138.Google Scholar
  4. Coakley, J. A., Jr., Cess, R. D., 1985: Response of the NCAR community climate model to the radiative forcing by the naturally occurring tropospheric aerosol.J. Atmos. Sci. 42, 1677–1692.Google Scholar
  5. Fouquart, Y., Bonnel, B., Brogniez, G., Buriez, J. C., Smith, L., Morcrette, J. J., 1987: Observations of Sahara aerosols: Results of ECLATS field experiment. Part II: Broadband radiative characteristics of the aerosols and vertical radiative flux divergence.J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 26, 38–52.Google Scholar
  6. Gerber, H. E., Deepak, A., 1984:Aerosols and Their Climatic Effects. Hampton: A. Deepak, 297 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Howard, J. N., Burch, D. L., Williams, D., 1956: Near infrared transmission through synthetic atmospheres.J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 46, 186–190.Google Scholar
  8. Lacis, A. L., Hansen, J. E., 1974: A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the earth's atmosphere.J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 118–133.Google Scholar
  9. Landsberg, H. E., 1970: Man-made climate changes.Science 170, 1265–1274.Google Scholar
  10. Liou, K. N., 1980:An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation. New York: Academic Press, 392 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Liou, K. N., Freeman, K. P., Sasamori, T., 1978: Cloud and aerosol effects on the solar heating rate of the atmosphere.Tellus 30, 62–70.Google Scholar
  12. Liou, K. N., Ou, S. C., 1983: Theory of equilibrium temperature in radiative turbulent atmospheres.J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 214–229.Google Scholar
  13. Liou, K. N., Ou, S. C., Kinne, S., Koenig, G., 1984: Radiation parameterization programs for use in general circulation models. Report to Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, AFGL-TR-84-0217.Google Scholar
  14. Liou, K. N., Sasamori, T., 1975: On the transfer of solar radiation in aerosol atmospheres.J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 2166–2177.Google Scholar
  15. Liu, C. M., Ou, S. C., 1988: The effect of aerosol on the infrared radiative cooling.Paper Meteor. Res. 10, 1–32.Google Scholar
  16. McClatchy, R. A., Fenn, R. W., Selby, J. E. A., Volz, F. E., Garing, J. S., 1971: Optical properties of the atmosphere. Report to the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-71-0279.Google Scholar
  17. Ou, S. C., Liou, K. N., 1988: Development of radiation and cloud parameterization programs for AFGL global models. Report to the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, AFGL-TR-88-0018.Google Scholar
  18. Potter, G. L., Cess, R. D., 1984: Background tropospheric aerosols: Incorporation within a statistical-dynamical climate model.J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9521–9526.Google Scholar
  19. Rasool, S. I., Schneider, S. H., 1971: Atmospheric carbon dioxide and aerosols: Effects of large increases on global climate.Science 173, 138–141.Google Scholar
  20. Reck, R. A., 1976: Thermal and radiative effects of atmospheric aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere using a radiative-convective model.Atmos. Environ. 10, 611–617.Google Scholar
  21. Reck, R. A., Hummel, J. R., 1981: Influence of aerosol optical properties on surface temperature computed with a radiative-convective model.Atmos. Environ. 15, 1727–1731.Google Scholar
  22. Reiter, R., 1986:Fields, Currents and Aerosols in the Lower Troposphere. Faridabad, India: Printsman Press, 280 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Saito, T., 1981: The relationship between the increased rate of downward longwave radiation by atmospheric pollution and the visibility.Quart. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan 59, 254–261.Google Scholar
  24. SMIC, 1971: Inadvertent climate modification. In:Report on the Study of Man's Impact on Climate (SMIC) Cambridge: MIT Press, 308 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Wang, W.-C., Domoto, G. A., 1974: The radiative effect of aerosols in the earth's atmosphere.J. Appl. Meteor. 13, 521–534.Google Scholar
  26. Weare, B., Temkin, R., Snell, F., 1974: Aerosols and climate: Some further considerations.Science 186, 827–828.Google Scholar
  27. World Meteorological Organization, 1983: Experts meeting on aerosols and their climatic effects. WMO Report WCP-55, Geneva, Switzerland, 107 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Yueh, W. R., Chameides, W. L., 1979: A perturbative treatment of aerosol scattering of infrared radiation.J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 1997–2005.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. M. Liu
    • 1
  • S. S. Ou
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Atmospheric SciencesNational Taiwan UniversityTaipaiR.O.C.
  2. 2.Department of MeteorologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations