The meteorological conditions pertaining to the famous biblical episode during which Joshua stopped the sun when the Hebrew pursued the Amorites (Joshua 10, 10–13) are analyzed. The story, which cannot be interpreted as an anomaly in the astronomic motions, could be interpreted from the point of view of atmospheric optics. The event occurred at sundown, after an exceptional hailstorm, which left the ground of the valley where the Amorites stayed covered with ice. This resulted in a big drop in the air temperature, forming the conditions for a “superior mirage”. The Hebrew were in another nearby place, untouched by hail, on hot soil, in the usual daytime conditions of “inferior mirage”. When they reached the place of the Amorites, their optical path inverted curvature, displacing upwards the sun which was setting. Hail in Palestine is a quite rare meteorological event and the superior mirage would seem decidedly rare in the subtropical climate. Given that the event has been described in detail it could not have been invented, as the superior mirage was then unknown, in particular its connection with hailstorms. This would thus lead to the conclusion that the miracle described should be interpreted as a meteorological event which actually did happen.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Abel, F. M., 1967:Géographie de la Palestine. Tome I. Geographie, Physique et Historique. Paris: Gabalde, 515 pp.
Baldi, D., 1952:Giosué. Turin: Marietti, 177 pp.
Boling, R. G., 1982:Joshua. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 580 pp.
Camuffo, D., 1989:Clima e Uomo. Milan: Garzanti (in press).
Catsoulis, B. D., Carapiperis, L., 1984: Frequency of Hail Occurrence in Greece.Weather 39, 182–188.
Fraser, A. B., 1975: Theological Optics.Appl. Opt. 14, 92–93.
Humphreys, W. J., 1940:Physics of the Air. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill (also Dover, 1964), 676 pp.
Kondratyev, K. Ya., 1969:Radiation in the Atmosphere. New York: Academic Press, 912 pp.
Kuhn, M., 1978: Optical phenomena in the Antarctic atmosphere. In Businger, J. A. (Ed.):Meteorological Studies at Plateau Station, Antarctica. Antarctic Research Series Volume 25, Paper 9, Washington D.C.: American Geophysical Union, 129–155.
Meteorological Office, 1964:Weather in the Mediterranean. Vol. II. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 372 pp.
Minnaert, M., 1954:Light and Colour in the Open Air. New York: Dover, 362 pp.
Orni, E., Efrat, E., 1966:Geography of Israel. Jerusalem: Program for Scientific Translations, 216 pp.
Phitian-Adams, W. J., 1946: A Meteorite of the Fourteenth Century.Palest. Expl. Quarterly 78, 116–124.
Pirot, L., Clamer, A., 1949:Josué. Paris: Letouzey and Ané, 827 pp.
Reiter, E. R., 1975: Handbook for Forecasters in the Mediterranean. Montrey Ca: Environmental Prediction Research Facility, ENVPREDRSCHFAC, Tech. Paper 5–5.
Soggin, A., 1970:Le Livre de Josué. Neuchatel: Delachaux and Niestlé, 186 pp.
Takahashi, K., Arakawa, H., 1981:Climates of Southern and Western Asia. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 333 pp.
About this article
Cite this article
Camuffo, D. A meteorological anomaly in Palestine 33 centuries ago: How did the sun stop?. Theor Appl Climatol 41, 81–85 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00866205