Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 41, Issue 1–2, pp 41–53 | Cite as

Long-term variations of annual and growing season rainfalls in Nigeria

  • O. J. Olaniran
  • G. N. Sumner
Article

Summary

Evidence for changes in the annual and growing season rainfall series for the period 1919 to 1985 in Nigeria are examined on a regional basis, using power-spectral and lowpass filter techniques, and the Mann-Kendall rank statistic. Four regions, the Coastal Zone, the Guinea-Savanna Zone, the Midland area and the Sahel, are used in the investigation of rainfall variation from south to north across the country.

Quasi-periodic oscillations in the annual and growing season rainfall series are found to be concentrated in four spectral bands: 2.0–2.4, 2.7–2.9, 3.2–3.6 and 5.6–6.3 years. The spatial coherence of the fluctuations in annual and growing season rainfall is found to be limited to Nigeria south of 11 degrees north latitude. Evidence also emerges of a progressive decline in annual and growing season rainfall for northern Nigeria, north of nine degrees north latitude, for the period 1939–1985.

Keywords

Waste Water Coherence Nigeria Coastal Zone Lowpass Filter 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ayoade, J. O, 1973: Annual rainfall trends and periodicities in Nigeria.Nigeria Geog. J. 16, 167–176.Google Scholar
  2. Ayoade, J. O., 1977: Perspectives on the recent drought in the Sudano-Sahelian region of West Africa, with particular reference to Nigeria.Arch. Met. Geoph. Biokl. Ser. B. 25, 67–77.Google Scholar
  3. Benoit, P., 1977: The start of the growing season in Northern Nigeria.Agric. Meteor. 8, 91–99.Google Scholar
  4. Bryson, R. A., 1973: Climatic modification by air pollution, II: the Sahelian effect. Report No. 9, Inst. Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, 12 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Bunting, A. H., Dennett, M. D., Elston, J., Milford, J. R., 1976: Rainfall trends in the West African Sahel.Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 102, 59–64.Google Scholar
  6. Dennett, M. D., Elston J, Rodgers, J. A., 1985: A reappraisal of rainfall trends in the Sahel.J. Climatol. 5, 353–361.Google Scholar
  7. Dyer, T. G. J., Marker, M. E., 1978: On the variation of rainfall over South West Africa.S. Afr. Geogr. J. 60, 144–149.Google Scholar
  8. Farmer, G., Wigley, T. M. L., 1985: Climatic trends for Tropical Africa. Research Report for Overseas Development Administration, Climatic Research Unit, Univ. East Anglia, UK., 136 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Gregory, S., 1983: A note on mean seasonal rainfall in the Sahel, 1931–1960 and 1961–1980.Geography 68, 31–36.Google Scholar
  10. Hutchinson, P., 1985: Rainfall analysis of the Sahelian drought in the Gambia.J. Climatol. 5, 665–672.Google Scholar
  11. Ilesanmi, O. O., 1972: An empirical formulation of the onset, advance and retreat of rainfall in Nigeria.J. Trop. Geog. 34, 17–24.Google Scholar
  12. Klaus, D., 1978: Spatial distribution and periodicity of mean annual precipitation south of the Sahara.Arch. Met. Geophys. Biokl. Ser. B. 26, 17–27.Google Scholar
  13. Kidson, J. W., 1977: African rainfall and its relation to the upper air circulation.Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 103, 441–456.Google Scholar
  14. Kowal, J. M., Adeoye, K. B., 1973: An assessment of aridity and severity of the 1972 drought in Northern Nigeria and neighbouring countries.Savanna 2, 145–158.Google Scholar
  15. Kowal, J. M., Kassam, A. H., 1975: Rainfall in the Sudan Savanna region of Nigeria.Weather 30, 24–28.Google Scholar
  16. Lamb, P. J., 1978: Case studies of tropical Atlantic surface circulation patterns during recent sub-Saharan weather anomalies: 1967 and 1968.Mon. Wea. Rev. 106, 482–491.Google Scholar
  17. Lamb, P. J., 1980: Sahelian drought.NZ J. Geog. 68, 12–16.Google Scholar
  18. Lamb, P. J., 1982: Persistence of Subsaharan drought.Nature 299, 46–48.Google Scholar
  19. Lamb, P. J., 1985: Rainfall in sub-Saharan West Africa during 1941–1983.Z. Gletscherkunde Glaziologie 21, 131–139.Google Scholar
  20. Mitchell, J. M., 1966:Climatic Change. WMO Tech. Note 79, Geneva.Google Scholar
  21. Nicholson, S. E., 1980: The nature of rainfall fluctuations in subtropical West Africa.Mon. Wea. Rev. 108, 473–487.Google Scholar
  22. Nicholson, S. E., 1981: Rainfall and atmospheric circulation during drought periods and wetter years in West Africa.Mon. Wea. Rev. 109, 2191–2208.Google Scholar
  23. Nicholson, S. E., Entekhabi, D., 1986: The quasi-periodic behaviour of rainfall variability in Africa and its relationship to the Southern Oscillation.Arch. Met. Geophys. Biokl., Ser. A 34, 311–348.Google Scholar
  24. Oguntoyinbo, J. S., Richards, P., 1977: The extent and intensity of the 1969–1973 drought in Nigeria: a provisional analysis. In:Drought in Africa. Dalby D., Church, J. H. and Bezzaz, (eds), 2nd ed., International African Inst., London, 114–126.Google Scholar
  25. Oguntoyinbo, J. S., 1981: Climatic variability and food production in West Africa.Geojournal 5, 139–150.Google Scholar
  26. Ojo, O., 1977:The Climates of West Africa. Ibadan: Heinemann Press, 218 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Ojo, O., 1985: Paleoclimatic evidences from lakes and rivers: some information from recent climatic changes in Africa.Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie 21, 141–150.Google Scholar
  28. Oladipo, E. O., 1987: Power spectral analysis and coherence of drought in the Interior Plains of North America.J. Climatol. 7, 477–491.Google Scholar
  29. Olaniran, O. J., 1983a: The onset of rainfall and the start of the growing season in Nigeria.Nigeria Geog. J. 26, 81–88.Google Scholar
  30. Olaniran, O. J., 1983b: The monsoon factor and the seasonality of rainfall distribution in Nigeria.Malaysian J. Trop. Geog. 7, 38–45.Google Scholar
  31. Olaniran, O. J., 1986: On the classification of tropical climates for the study of regional climatology: Nigeria as a case study.Geografiska Ann. 68A, 233–244.Google Scholar
  32. Olaniran, O. J., Sumner, G. N., 1989: A study of climatic change in Nigeria based on the onset, retreat and length of the rainy season.Int. J. Clim. (in press).Google Scholar
  33. Rodhe, H., Virji, H., 1976: Trends and periodicities in East African rainfall data.Mon. Wea. Rev. 104, 307–315.Google Scholar
  34. Tyson, P. D., Dyer, T. G. J., Mumetse, M. N., 1975: Secular changes in South African rainfall: 1880 to 1972.Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 101, 817–832.Google Scholar
  35. Winstanley, D., 1973: Rainfall patterns and general atmospheric circulation.Nature 245, 190–194.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. J. Olaniran
    • 1
  • G. N. Sumner
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of IlorinIlorinNigeria
  2. 2.Department of GeographySt. David's University CollegeLampeter, DyfedUK

Personalised recommendations