Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 65–79 | Cite as

A hybrid technique for computing the monthly mean net longwave surface radiation over oceanic areas

  • H. Zhi
  • Harshvardhan


Global maps of the monthly mean net upward longwave radiation flux at the ocean surface have been obtained for April, July, October 1985 and January 1986. These maps were produced by blending information obtained from a combination of general circulation model cloud radiative forcing fields, the top-of-the-atmosphere cloud radiative forcing from ERBE and TOVS profiles and sea surface temperature on ISCCP C1 tapes. The fields are compatible with known meteorological regimes of atmospheric water vapor content and cloudiness. There is a vast area of high net upward longwave radiation flux (> 80 W m−2) in the eastern Pacific Ocean throughout most of the year. Areas of low net upward longwave radiation flux (< 40 Wm−2) are the tropical convective regions and extra tropical regions that tend to have persistent low cloud cover. The technique used in this study relies on GCM simulations and so is subject to some of the uncertainties associated with the model. However, all input information regarding temperature, moisture and cloud cover is from satellite data having near global coverage. This feature of the procedure alone warrants its consideration for further use in compiling global maps of the net longwave radiation at the surface over the oceans.


Cloud Cover Model Cloud Water Vapor Content Atmospheric Water Vapor Convective Region 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ardanuy, P. E., Stowe, L. L., Gruber, A., Weiss, M., Craig, S. L., 1989: Longwave cloud radiative forcing as determined from Nimbus-7 observations.J. Climate 2, 766–799.Google Scholar
  2. Breon, F.-M., Frouin, R., Gautier, C., 1991: Downward longwave irradiance at the ocean surface: an assessment of in situ measurements and parameterizations.J. Appl. Meteor. 30, 17–31.Google Scholar
  3. Briegleb, B. P., 1992: Longwave band model for thermal radiation in climate studies.J. Geophys. Res. 97, 11,475–11,485.Google Scholar
  4. Cess, R. D., Potter, G. L., 1987: Exploratory studies of cloud radiative forcing with a general circulation model.Tellus 39A, 460–473.Google Scholar
  5. Charlock, T. P., Ramanathan, V., 1985: The albedo field and cloud radiative forcing produced by a general circulation model with internally generated cloud optics.J. Atmos. Sci. 42, 1408–1429.Google Scholar
  6. Chou, M. D., 1985: Surface radiation in the tropical pacific.J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 24, 83–92.Google Scholar
  7. Chou, M. D., 1989: On the estimation of surface radiation using satellite data.Theor. Appl. Climatol. 40, 25–36.Google Scholar
  8. COESA, U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976: U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  9. Cox, S. K., Griffith, K. T., 1979: Estimates of radiative divergence during phase III of Gate, I, Methodology.J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 576–585.Google Scholar
  10. Darnell, W. L., Gupta, S. K., Staylor, W. F., 1983: Downward longwave radiation at the surface from satellite measurement.J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 22, 1956–1960.Google Scholar
  11. Darnell, W. L., Gupta, S. K., Staylor, W. F., 1986: Downward longwave surface radiation from sun-synchronous satellite data: Validation of methodology.J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 25, 1012–1021.Google Scholar
  12. Frouin, R., Gautier, C., Morcrette, J., 1988: Downward longwave irradiance at the ocean surface from satellite data: Methodology and in situ validation.J. Geophys. Res. 93, 597–619.Google Scholar
  13. Fung, I. Y., Harrison, D. E., Lacis, A. A., 1984: On the variability of the net longwave radiation at the ocean surface.Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 22, 177–193.Google Scholar
  14. Gautier, C., Diak, G., Masse, S., 1980: A simple physical model to estimate incident solar radiation at the surface from GOES satellite data.J. Appl. Meteor. 19, 1005–1012.Google Scholar
  15. Gupta, S. K., 1989: A parameterization for longwave surface radiation from sun-synchronous satellite data.J. Climate 2, 305–320.Google Scholar
  16. Harrison, E. F., Minnis, P., Barkstrom, B. R., Ramanathan, V., Cess, R. D., Gibson, G. G., 1990: Seasonal variation of cloud radiative forcing derived from the Earth radiation budget experiment.J. Geophys. Res. 95, 18,687–18,703.Google Scholar
  17. Harshvardhan, Randall, D. A., Corsetti, T. G., Dazlich, D. A., 1989: Earth radiation budget and cloudiness simulations with a general circulation model.J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 1922–1942.Google Scholar
  18. Harshvardhan, Randall, D. A., Dazlich, D. A., 1990: Relationship between the longwave cloud radiative forcing at the surface and the top of the atmosphere.J. Climate 3, 1435–1443.Google Scholar
  19. Hartmann, D. L., Doelling, D., 1991: On the net radiative effectiveness of clouds.J. Geophys. Res. 96, 869–891.Google Scholar
  20. Justus, C. G., Paris, M. V., Tarpley, J. D., 1986: Satellite-measured insolation in the United States, Mexico, and South America.Remote Sensing Environ. 20, 57–83.Google Scholar
  21. Kiehl, J. T., Ramanathan, V., 1990: Comparison of cloud forcing derived from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment with that simulated by the NCAR community climate model.J. Geophys. Res. 95, 11,679–11,698.Google Scholar
  22. Lind, R. J., Katsaros, K. B., 1987: Radiation measurements from R/P FLIP and R/V Acania during the Mixed Layer Dynamics Experiment (MILDEX). Technical Report, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA., 44 pp. (available from the authors).Google Scholar
  23. Pinker, R. T., Ewing, J. A., 1985: Modeling surface solar radiation: Model formulation and validation.J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 24, 389–401.Google Scholar
  24. Ramanathan, V., 1986: Scientific use of surface radiation budget data for climate studies. In: Suttles, J. T., Ohring, G. (eds.)Surface Radiation Budget for Climate Studies. NASA reference publication 1169, 132 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Ramanathan, V., 1987: The role of Earth radiation budget studies in climate and general circulation research.J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4075–4095.Google Scholar
  26. Randall, D. A., Harshvardhan, Dazlich, D. A., Corsetti, T. G., 1989: Interactions among radiation, convection, and large-scale dynamics in a general circulation model.J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 1943–1970.Google Scholar
  27. Randall, D. A., Harshvardhan, Dazlich, D. A., 1991: Diurnal variability of the hydrologic cycle in a general circulation model.J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 40–62.Google Scholar
  28. Rao, C. R. N., Stowe, L. L., McClain, E. P., 1989: Remote sensing of aerosols over the oceans using AVHRR data. Theory, practice and applications.Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 743–749.Google Scholar
  29. Raschke, E., Preuss, H. J., 1979: The determination of solar radiation budget at the Earth's surface from satellite measurements.Meteorol. Rdsch. 32, 18–28.Google Scholar
  30. Reed, R. K., Halpern, D., 1975: Insolation and net longwave radiation off the Oregon coast.J. Geophys. Res. 80, 839–844.Google Scholar
  31. Reynolds, R. W., 1988: A real-time global sea surface temperature analysis.J. Climate 1, 75–86.Google Scholar
  32. Rossow, W. B., Schiffer, R. A., 1991: ISCCP Cloud data products.Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 72, 2–20.Google Scholar
  33. Schmetz, P., Schmetz, J., Raschke, E., 1986: Estimation of daytime downward longwave radiation at the surface from satellite and grid point data.Theor. Appl. Climatol. 37, 136–149.Google Scholar
  34. Tarpley, J. D., 1979: Estimating incident solar radiation at the surface from geostationary satellite data.J. Appl. Meteor. 18, 1172–1181.Google Scholar
  35. WCP-92, 1984: Report of TOGA workshop on sea surface temperature and net surface radiation. World Climate Research Programme, WMO, GENEVA, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  36. Weare, B. C., 1989: Relationships between net radiation at the surface and the top of the atmosphere derived from a general circulation model.J. Climate 2, 193–197.Google Scholar
  37. Wu, M. -L. C., Cheng, C. -P., 1989: Surface downward flux computed by using geophysical parameters derived from HIRS 2/MSU soundings.Theor. Appl. Climatol. 40, 37–51.Google Scholar
  38. Wu, M. -L. C., Chang, L. A., 1991: Differences in global data sets of atmospheric and surface parameters and their impact on outgoing longwave radiation and surface downward flux calculations.J. Geophys. Rev. 96, 9227–9262.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Zhi
    • 1
  • Harshvardhan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations