Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 70, Issue 8, pp 499–504 | Cite as

The permanent tide in GPS positioning

  • Markku Poutanen
  • Martin Vermeer
  • Jaakko Mäkinen


The treatment of the permanent tidal deformation of the Earth in GPS computation has been an almost unmentioned topic in the GPS literature. However, the ever increasing accuracy and the need to combine the GPS based coordinates with other methods requires a consistent way to handle the tides. Our survey shows that both the ITRF-xx coordinates and the GPS based coordinates are nowadays reduced to a “non-tidal” crust, conventionally defined using physically meaningless parameters. We propose to use instead the zero-crust concept which corresponds to concepts already accepted in the resolution of IAG in 1983 for gravimetric works.


Unmentioned Topic Tidal Deformation Permanent Tide Meaningless Parameter 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markku Poutanen
    • 1
  • Martin Vermeer
    • 1
  • Jaakko Mäkinen
    • 1
  1. 1.Finnish Geodetic InstituteMasalaFinland

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