Carbonylation of pentene-1 and 3-methylbutene-1 by carbon monoxide in the presence of hydrates of boron trifluoride
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The carbonylation of pentene-1 and 3-methylbutene-1 with CO under pressure in the presence of BF3 hydrates, forming carboxylic acids (the reaction of hydrocarboxylation) was investigated.
The reaction in the presence of BF3·1.5H2O proceeds with the formation of a homogeneous mixture, which stratifies into the catalyst and reaction products after the addition of excess water. In the presence of BF3 hydrates and with a larger content of water, at the end of the reaction two layers are obtained: the catalyst and the reaction products.
The most active and selective with respect toα,α,-dialkylcarboxylic acids is BF3·2.5H2O, in the presence of whichα,α-dimethylbutyric acid is formed from pentenes with a yield of 92–93% under the optimum conditions: 100° and 100 atm CO.
KeywordsHydrate Boron Optimum Condition Carbonylation Carbon Monoxide
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