Annals of sex research

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 453–486 | Cite as

Use of the MMPI and its derived scales with sex offenders

II. Reliability and criterion validity
  • Ron Langevin
  • Percy Wright
  • Loraine Handy


A total of 157 sex offenders were administered the MMPI. They were subdivided into violent and nonviolent, substance abuser versus nonabuser, criminal history versus no criminal history, CT brain abnormalities versus no abnormalities and into more and less defensive groups. From the MMPI, 125 scales measuring sexual behavior, substance abuse, violence, personality, defensiveness, and brain damage were examined for reliability, factor structure and discriminant validity. Results showed that most scales were internally consistent. Discriminant validity was modest in most cases but results suggest that many scales examined would be useful aids in screening and profiling sex offenders.


Substance Abuse Sexual Behavior Factor Structure Substance Abuser Brain Damage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, D.K., & Horn, J.L. (1965). Nonoverlapping keys for the MMPI scales.Journal of Consulting Psychology, 29, 284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Althof, S.E., Lothstein, L.M., Jones, P., & Shen, J. (1983). Am MMPI subscale (Gd) to identify males with gender identity conflicts.Journal of Personality Assessment, 47, 42–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, W.P., Kunce, J.T., & Rich, B. (1979). Sex offenders: Three personality types.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 671–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anthony, N. (1976). Malingering as role taking.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32, 32–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Armentrout, J.A., & Hauer, A.L. (1978). MMPI's of rapists of adults, rapists of children, and non-rapist sex offenders.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 330–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beatrice, J. (1985). A psychological comparison of herterosexuals, transvestites, preoperative transsexuals and postoperative transsexuals.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 173, 358–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bem, S.L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 42, 155–162.Google Scholar
  8. Bednard, L.C. (1981). The multidimensional aspects of masculinity-femininity.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 41, 797–802.Google Scholar
  9. Berzins, J.I., Ross, W. F., English, G.E., & Haley, J.V. (1974). Subgroups among opiate addicts: A typological investigation.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83, 65–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Betz, N.E., & Bander, R.S. (1980).Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 39, 1245–1248.Google Scholar
  11. Bradford, J.M.W., Bloomberg, D., & Bourget, D. (1988). The heterogeneity/homogeneity of pedophilia.Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 13, 217–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Burkhart, B.R., Gynther, M.D., & Christian, W.L. (1978). Psychological mindedness, intelligence, and item subtlety endorsement patterns on the MMPI.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 76–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Byrne, D. (1961). The repression-sensitization Scale: Rationale, reliability, and validity.Journal of Personality, 29, 334–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Byrne, D., Barry, J., & Nelson, D. (1963). Relation of the revised repression-sensitization scale to measures of self-description.Psychological Reports, 13, 323–334.Google Scholar
  15. Carlson, R.W. (1978). MMPI content and repression-sensitization scales.Psychological Reports, 43, 1115–1119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cavior, N., Kurtzberg, R.L., & Lipton, D.S. (1967). The development and validation of a heroin addiction scale with the MMPI.International Journal of the Addictions, 2, 129–137.Google Scholar
  17. Colligan, R.C., Osborne, D., Swenson, W.M., & Offord, K.P. (1984). The MMPI: Development of contemporary norms.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 100–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Colligan, R.C., Osborne, D., Swenson, W.M., & Offord, K.P. (1985). Using the 1983 norms for the MMPI: Code type frequencies in four clinical samples.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 629–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cutter, F. (1960). Sexual psychopathy: An MMPI survey. Unpublished paper. Veterans Administration Hospital, Fresno, California.Google Scholar
  20. Dahlstrom, W.G., Welsh, G.S., & Dahlstrom, L.E. (1972).An MMPI handbook. Vol. 1. Clinical Interpretation. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  21. Davis, W.E., Pursell, S.A., & Burnham, R.A. (1979). Alcoholism, sex-role orientation and psychological distress.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 209–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Davis, K. R., & Sines, J.O. (1971). An antisocial behavior pattern associated with a specific MMPI profile.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 36, 229–234.Google Scholar
  23. Deiker, T.E. (1974). A cross-validation of MMPI scales of aggression on male criminal criterion groups.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 42, 196–202.Google Scholar
  24. Dietz, P. E. (1986). Mass, serial, and sensational homicides.Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 62, 477–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Eichman, R. (1962). Factored scales for the MMPI: A clinical and statistical manual.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 18, 363–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Endicott, N.A., Jortner, S., & Abramoff, E. (1969). Objective measures of suspiciousness.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74, 26–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Erickson, W.D., Luxenberg, M.G., Walbek, N.H., & Seely, R.K. (1987). Frequency of MMPI two-point code types among sex offenders.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 55, 566–570.Google Scholar
  28. Finney, J.C. (1965) Development of a new set of MMPI scales.Psychological Reports, 17, 707–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Foulds, G.A., Caine, T.M., & Creasy, M.A. (1960). Aspects of extra- and intro-punitive expression in mental illness.Journal of Mental Science, 106, 599–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Freund, K., Langevin, R., Satterberg, J., & Steiner, B. (1977). Extension of the gender identity scale for males.Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 507–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gynther, M.D., Burkhart, B.R., & Hovanitz, C. (1979). Do face-valid items have more predictive validity than subtle items? The case of the MMPI Pd Scale.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 47, 295–300.Google Scholar
  32. Haan, N. (1965). Coping and defense mechanisms related to personality inventories.Journal of Consulting Psychology, 29, 373–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hall, G.C. Nagayama (1989). Self-reported hostility as a function of offence characteristics and response style in a sexual offender population.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 57, 306–308. (a)Google Scholar
  34. Hall, G.C. Nagayama (1989). WAIS-R and MMPI profiles of men who have sexually assaulted children: Evidence of limited utility.Journal of Personality Assessment, 53, 404–412. (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hall, G.C. Nagayama, Maiuro, R.D., Vitaliano, P.P., & Proctor, W.C. (1986). The utility of the MMPI with men who have sexually assaulted children.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 54, 493–496.Google Scholar
  36. Hampton, P.J. (1953). The development of a personality questionnaire for drinkers.Genetic Psychology Monographs, 48, 55–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Harrison, R.H., & Kass, E.H. (1968). MMPI correlates of Negro acculturation in a northern city.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 262–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hartman, B.J. (1967). Comparison of selected experimental MMPI profiles of sexual deviates and sociopaths without sexual deviation.Psychological Reports, 20, 234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Holmes, W.O. (1953) The development of an empirical MMPI scale for alcoholism. Unpublished paper. San Jose (Calif.) State College.Google Scholar
  40. Horn, J.L. (1970). Linearly independent score components in MMPI-based scales and their role in characterizing hospitalized alcoholics.Proceedings of the 78th Annual Convention of the APA, 5, 888.Google Scholar
  41. Hoyt, D.P., & Sedlacek, G.M. (1958). Differentiating alcoholics from normals and abnormals with the MMPI.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 14, 69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Huesman, L. R., Lefkowitz, M. M., & Eron, L.D. (1978). Sum of MMPI Scales F, 4, 9 as a measure of aggression.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 1071–1078.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kalichman, S.C. (1990). Affective and personality characteristics of MMPI profile subgroups of incarcerated rapists.Archives of Sexual Behavior, 19, 443–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kalichman, S.C., Szmanowski, D., McKee, G., Taylor, J., & Craig, M.E. (1989). Cluster analytically derived MMPI profile subgroups of incarcerated adult rapists.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45, 149–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Karacan, I., Williams, R.L., Guerrero, M.W., Salis, P.J., Thornby, J.I. & Hursch, C,J, (1974). Nocturnal penile tumescence and sleep of convicted rapists and other prisoners,Archives of Sexual Behavior, 3, 19–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Keegan, J.F., & Lachar, d. (1979). The MMPI as a predictor of early termination from polydrug abuse treatment.Journal of Personality Assessment, 43, 379–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Koss, M.P., Leonard, K.E., Beezley, D.A., & Oros, C. j. (1985). Nonstranger sexual aggression: A discriminant analysis of the psychological characteristics of undetected offenders.Sex Roles, 12, 981–982.Google Scholar
  48. Lane, P.J., & Kling, J.S. (1979). Construct validation of the overcontrolled hostility scale of the MMPI.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 47, 781–782.Google Scholar
  49. Lang, R.A., Holden, R., Langevin, R., Pugh, G. M., & Wu, R. (1987). Personality and criminality in violent offenders.Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 179–195.Google Scholar
  50. Langevin, R. (1985). The paraphilias. In M.H. Ben-Aron, S.J. Hucker, & C.D. Webster (Eds.)Clinical criminology: The assessment and treatment of criminal behavior. Toronto: Clarke Institute of Psychiatry. (a)Google Scholar
  51. R. Langevin (Ed.)Erotic preference, gender identity, and aggression in men: New research studies. Hillsdale, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates. (b)Google Scholar
  52. Langevin, R. (1988). Defensiveness in sex offenders. In R. Rogers (Ed.)Clinical assessment of malingering and deception. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 269–308.Google Scholar
  53. Langevin, R., Ben-Aron, M.H., Wright, P., Marchese, V., & handy, L (1988). The sex killer.Annals of Sex Research, 1, 263–301.Google Scholar
  54. Langevin, R., Hucker, S.J., Handy, L., Hook, H.J., Purins, J.E., & Russon, A.E. (1985). Erotic preference and aggression in pedophilia: A comparison of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual types. In R. Langevin (Ed.)Erotic preference, gender identity, and aggression in men: New research studies. Hillsdale, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  55. Langevin, R., Lang, R. A., Reynolds, R., Wright, P., Garrels, D., Marchese, V., Handy, L., Pugh, & Frenzel, R.R. (1988). Personality and sexual anomalies: An examination of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory.Annals of Sex Research, 1, 13–32.Google Scholar
  56. Langevin, R., Lang, R.A., Wright, P., Handy, L., & Majpruz, V. (1989). Identifying violence-proneness in sex offenders.Annals of Sex Research, 2, 49–66.Google Scholar
  57. Langevin, R., Majpruz, V., & Handy, L. (1989). The gender dysphoria scale: A comparison of gender patients, sexually anomalous patients and community controls.Annals of Sex Research, 2, 89–96.Google Scholar
  58. Langevin, R., Paitich, D., Freeman, R., Mann, K., & Handy, L. (1978). Personality characteristics and sexual anomalies in males.Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 10, 222–238.Google Scholar
  59. Langevin, R., Paitich, D., Orchard, B., Handy, L., & Russon, A. (1982). Diagnosis of killers seen for psychiatric assessment: A controlled study.Acta Psychiatrica Scandanavica, 66, 216–228.Google Scholar
  60. Langevin, R., Paitich, D., & Russon, A.E. (1985). Voyeurism: Does it predict sexual aggression or violence in general? In R. Langevin (Ed.)Erotic preference, gender identity, and aggression in men: New research studies. Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  61. Langevin, R., Paitich, D., & Russon, A.E. (1985). Are rapists sexually anomalous, aggressive, or both? In R. Langevin (Ed.)Erotic preference, gender identity, and aggression in men: New research studies. Hillsdale, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  62. Langevin, R., Wright, P., & Handy, L. (1988). Empathy, assertiveness, aggressiveness and defensiveness among sex offenders.Annals of Sex Research, 1, 533–547.Google Scholar
  63. Lanyon, R.I., & Lutz, R.W. (1984). MMPI discrimination of defensive and nondefensive felony sex offenders.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 841–843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Leonard, C.V. (1977). The MMPI as a suicide predictor.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 45, 367–377.Google Scholar
  65. Levine, S.B. (1980). Psychiatric diagnosis of patients requesting sex reassignment surgery.Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 6, 164–173.Google Scholar
  66. Linden, J.D. (1969) The differential utility of a scale to identify alcoholics. Unpublished paper presented at teh Midwestern Psychological Association Meeting 1969.Google Scholar
  67. MacAndrew, C. (1965). The differentiation of male alcoholic outpatients from non-alcoholic psychaitric patients by means of the MMPI.Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 26, 238–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. MacDougald, D. (1970).Handbook for emotional maturity development profile and probability reports. Decatur, Ga: Emotional Maturity Instruction Center.Google Scholar
  69. Marsh, J.T., Hilliard, J., & Lechti, R. (1955). A sexual deviation scale for the MMPI.Journal of Consulting Psychology, 19, 55–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. McCreary, C. P. (1975). Personality differences among child molesters.Journal of Personality Assessment, 39, 591–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. McCreary, C.P. (1976). Trait and type differences among male and female assaultive and nonassaultive offenders.Journal of Personality Assessment, 40, 617–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. McGovern, F.J., & Nevid, J.S. (1986). Evaluation apprehension on psychological inventories ina prison setting.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 54, 576–578.Google Scholar
  73. McLachlan, J.F.C. (1975). An MMPI discriminant function to distinguish alcoholics form narcotic addicits: Effects of age, sex, and psychopathology.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 163–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Megargee, E.I., Cook, P.E., & Mendelsohn, G.A. (1967). Development and validation of an MMPI scale of assaultivenesss in overcontrolled individuals,Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 72, 519–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Messick, S., & Jackson, D.N. (1972). Judgmental dimension of psychopathology.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 38, 418–427.Google Scholar
  76. Overall, J.E. (1973). MMPI personality patterns of alcoholics and narcotic addicts.Quarterly Journal of Studies in Alcohol, 34, 104–111.Google Scholar
  77. Pallis, D.J., & Birtchnell, J. (1977). Seriousness of suicide attempt in relation to personality.British Journal of Psychaitry, 130, 253–259.Google Scholar
  78. Panton, J. H. (1978). Personality differences appearing between rapist of adults, rapist of children, and nonviolent sexual molesters of female children.Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry, and Behavior, 3, 385–393.Google Scholar
  79. Panton, J.H. (1960). A new MMPI scale for the identification of homosexuality.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 16, 17–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Panton, J.H. (1962). The identification of habitual criminalism with the MMPI.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 18, 133–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Panton, J.H. (1970). Validation of the aggravated sex scale for the MMPI. Unpublished paper. North Carolina Department of Social Rehabilitation and Control (Raleigh)Google Scholar
  82. Panton, J.H. (1979). MMPI profile configurations associated with incestuous and non-incestuous molesting.Psychological Reports, 45, 335–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Panton, J.H., & Brisson, R.C. (1971). Characteristics associated with drug abuse within a state prison population,Corrective Psychaitry & Journal of Social Therapy, 17, 3–33.Google Scholar
  84. Pantalano, F. (1978). Personality dimensions of drug abusers who enter a drug-free therapeutic community.Psychological Reports, 42, 1063–1069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Patalano, F. (1980). Comparison of MMPI scores of drug abusers and Mayo Clinic normative groups.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 576–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Penk, W.E., Woodward, W.A., Robinowitz, R., & Hess, J.L. (1978). Differences in MMPI scores of black and white compulsive heroin users.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 505–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Persons, R.W., & Marks, P.A. (1971). The violent 4-3 MMPI personality type.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 36, 189–196.Google Scholar
  88. Quinsey, V.L., Arnold, L.S., & Preusse, M.G. (1980). MMPI profiles of men referred for a pretrial psychiatric assessment as a function of offense type.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 410–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Rada, R.T. (1978).Clinical aspects of the rapist. New York Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  90. Rader, C.M. (1977). MMPI profile types of exposers, rapists, and assaulters in a court services population.Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 45, 61–69.Google Scholar
  91. Rathus, S.A., Fox, J.A., & Ortins, B. (1980). The Mac Andrew Scale as a measure of substance abuse and delinquency among adolescents.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 579–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Revitch, E. (1965). Sex murder and the potential sex murder.Diseases of the Nervous System, 26, 640–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Rosen, R. (1974). Brief report of MMPI characteristics of sexual deviation.Psychological Reports, 35, 73–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rosenberg, N. (1970). Comparative validity for a composite MMPI alcoholism key. Proceedings of the 78th Annual Convention of the APA, 5, 888.Google Scholar
  95. Ross, M.W., & Burnard, D. (1988). Utility of the Gd Scale for the measurement of gender-dysphoria in males.Psychological Reports, 63, 87–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Schwartz, M.F., & Graham, J.R. (1979). Construct validity of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 47, 1090–1095.Google Scholar
  97. Scott, R.L., & Stone, D.A. (1986). MMPI profile constellations in incest families.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 54, 364–368.Google Scholar
  98. Sines, J.O. (1966). Actuarial methods in personality assessment. In B. Maher (Ed.)Progress in experimental personality research. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  99. Snowden, L.R., Campbell, D.R., & Nelson, L. S. (1984). The MMPI and porblem drinking: Statistical controls and multifactor criteria.Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 271–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Snyder, D.K., Kline, R.B., & Podany, E.C. (1985). Comparison of external correlates of MMPI substance abuse scales across sex and race.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 53, 520–525.Google Scholar
  101. Steiner, B.W. (Ed.) (1985).Gender dysphoria: Development, research, management. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  102. Sutker, P.B., Archer, R.P., & Allain, A.N. (1978). Drug abuse patterns, personality characteristics and relationships with sex, race, and sensation seeking.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 46, 1374–1378.Google Scholar
  103. Todd, A.L., & Gynther, M.D. (1988). Have MMPI Mf Scale correlates changes in the past 30 years?Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 505–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Toobert, S., Bartelme, K.F., & Jones, E.S. (1959). Some factors related to pedophilia.International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 4, 272–279.Google Scholar
  105. Torki, M.A. (1980). Validation of the MMPI MF Scale in Kuwait.Psychological Reports, 47, 1152–1154.Google Scholar
  106. Ullman, L. (1962). An empirically derived MMPI scale which measures facilitation-inhibition of recognition of threatening stimuli.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 18, 127–132.Google Scholar
  107. Velasquez, R.J. & Callahan, W.J. (1989). MMPI profiles of Hispanic-American inpatient and outpatient sex offenders.Psychological Reports, 65, 1055–1058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Volentine, S. Zimmerman (1981). The assessment of masculinity and femininity: Scale 5 of the MMPI compared with the BSRI and the PAQ.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37, 367–374.Google Scholar
  109. Walkefield, Jr. J.A., Sasek, J., Friedman, A.F., & Bowden, J.D. (1976).Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 44, 766–770.Google Scholar
  110. Walters, G.D. (1987). Child sex offenders and rapists in a military prison setting,International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 31, 261–269.Google Scholar
  111. Walters, G.D., & Greene, R.L. (1983). Factor structure of the overcontrolled hostility scale of the MMPI.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 560–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Walters, G. D., Greene, R.L., & Solomon, G.S. (1982). Empirical correlates of the overcontrolled hostility scale and the MMPI 4-3 high-point pair.Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 50, 213–218.Google Scholar
  113. Waters, B.G.H., Sewndbuehler, J.M., Kincel, R.L., Boodoosingh, L.A., & Narchenko, I. (1982). The use of the MMPI for the differentiation of suicidal and non-suicidal depressions.Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 27, 663–667.Google Scholar
  114. Welsh, G. S. (1956). Factor dimensions A and R. In Welsh. G.S., Dahlstrom, W.G. (Eds.).Basic readings on the MMPI in psychology and medicine. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  115. Wong, M.R. (1984). MMPI scale 5: Its meaning, or lack thereof.Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 279–284.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Juniper Press 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ron Langevin
    • 1
  • Percy Wright
    • 1
  • Loraine Handy
    • 1
  1. 1.Clarke Institute of PsychiatryTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations