Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 221–236 | Cite as

The Survey of Recent Life Experiences: A decontaminated hassles scale for adults

  • Paul M. Kohn
  • Jennifer E. Macdonald
Article

Abstract

A new decontaminated hassles measure for adults, the Survey of Recent Life Experiences, was developed and validated. An initial pool of 92 items was administered to 100 subjects along with the Perceived Stress Scale. Fifty-one items were selected, based on significant correlations with the latter scale. The alpha reliability of the resultant final form of the Survey of Recent Life Experiences and its correlation with perceived stress were both high. In a separate cross-replication sample of 136 adults, the alpha reliability of the Survey and its correlation against the Perceived Stress Scale remained acceptably high. Moreover, separate-sex analyses supported the reliability and validity of the Survey of Recent Life Experiences across gender. Factor analysis of the Survey yielded six interpretable factors. Intercorrelations among subscales based on these factors were generally modest, suggesting that the scale is relatively free from contamination by psychological distress.

Key words

hassles stress adults measurement 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdel-Khalek, A. M., and Omar, M. M. (1988). Death anxiety, state and trait anxiety in Kuwaitian samples.Psychol. Rep. 63: 715–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baer, P. E., Garmezy, L. B., McLaughlin, R. J., Pokorny, A. D., and Wernick, M. R. (1987). Stress, coping, family conflict, and adolescent alcohol use.J. Behav. Med. 10: 449–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bander, R. S., and Betz, J. E. (1981). The relationship of sex and sex role to trait and situationally specific anxiety.J. Res. Personal. 15: 312–322.Google Scholar
  4. Bernstein, J., and Carmel, S. (1986). Trait-anxiety differences among medical students.Psychol. Rep. 59: 1063–1068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Blanksteim, K. R., and Flett, G. L. (1991). Specificity in the assessment of daily hassles: Hassles, locus of control, and adjustment in college students.Can. J. Behav. Sci. (in press).Google Scholar
  6. Bobo, J. K., Gilchrist, L. D., Elmer, J. E., Snow, W. H., and Schinke, S. P. (1986). Hassles, role strain, and peer relations in young adolescents.J. Early Adolesc. 6: 339–352.Google Scholar
  7. Burks, N., and Martin, B. (1983). Everyday problems and life-change events: Ongoing versus acute sources of stress.J. Hum. Stress 11: 27–35.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, S., Kamarack, T., and Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress.J. Health Soc. Behav. 24: 385–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Compas, B. F., Davis, G. E., Forsythe, C. J., and Wagner, B. M. (1987). Assessment of major and daily stressful events during adolescence: The Adolescent Perceived Events Scale.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 55: 534–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. De Longis, A., Coyne, J. C., Dakof, G., Folkman, S., and Lazarus, R. S. (1982). Relationships of daily hassles, uplifts and major life events to health status.Health Psychol. 1: 119–136.Google Scholar
  11. Derogatis, L. R., Lipman, R. S., Rickels, K., Uhlenhuth, E. H., and Covi, L. (1974). The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): A self-report symptom inventory.Behav. Sci. 19: 1–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dohrenwend, B. P., and Shrout, P. E. (1985). “Hassles” in the conceptualization and measurement of life-stress variables.Am. Psychol. 40: 780–785.Google Scholar
  13. Dohrenwend, B. S., Dohrenwend, B. P., Dodson, M., and Shrout, P. E. (1984). Symptoms, hassles, social support and life events: Problem of confounded measures.J. Abnorm. Psychol. 93: 222–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Eckenrode, J. (1984). Impact of chronic and acute stressors on daily reports of mood.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 46: 907–918.Google Scholar
  15. Elwood, S. E. (1987). Stressor and coping response inventories for children.Psychol. Rep. 60: 931–947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ewedmi, F., and Linn, M. W. (1987). Health and hassles in older and younger men.J. Clin. Psychol. 43: 347–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Flannery, R. B. (1986a). Major life events and daily hassles in predicting health status: Methodological inquiry.J. Clin. Psychol. 42: 485–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Flannery, R. B. (1986b). Negative affectivity, daily hassles, and somatic illness: Preliminary inquiry concerning hassles measurement.Educ. Psychol. Meas. 46: 1001–1004.Google Scholar
  19. Folkman, S. (1984). Personal control, stress, and coping processes: A theoretical analysis.J. Personal Soc. Psychol. 46: 839–852.Google Scholar
  20. Green, B. L. (1986). On the confounding of “hassles” stress and outcome.Am. Psychol. 41: 714–715.Google Scholar
  21. Holahan, C. K., and Holahan, C. J. (1987). Life stress, hassles, and self-efficacy in aging: A replication and extension.J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 17: 574–592.Google Scholar
  22. Holahan, C. K., Holahan, C. J., and Belk, S. S. (1984). Adjustment in aging: The roles of life stress, hassles and self-efficacy. Health Psychol. 3: 315–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hudiburg, R. (1989). Psychology of computer use. VII. Measuring technostress: Computer-related stress.Psychol. Rep. 64: 767–772.Google Scholar
  24. Ivancevich, J. M. (1986). Life events and hassles as predictors of health symptoms, job performance and absenteeism.J. Occup. Behav. 7: 39–51.Google Scholar
  25. Johnson, M., and Stone, G. L. (1987). Social workers and burnout: A psychological description.J. Soc. Sci. Res. 10: 67–80.Google Scholar
  26. Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C., Schaefer, C., and Lazarus, R. S. (1981). Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events.J. Behav. Med. 4: 1–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kanner, A. D., Feldman, S. S., Weinberger, D. A., and Ford, M. E. (1987). Uplifts, hassles and adaptational outcomes in early adolescence.J. Early Adolesc. 7: 371–384.Google Scholar
  28. Kline, P. (1987). Factor analysis and personality theory.Eur. J. Personal. 1: 21–36.Google Scholar
  29. Kohn, P. M. (1991). Reactivity and anxiety in the laboratory and beyond. In Strelau, J., and Angleitner, A. (eds.),Explorations in temperament, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Kohn, P. M., and Gurevich, M. (1990). On the adequacy of the “indirect method” of measuring the primary appraisal of hassles-based stress, Unpublished manuscript, York University.Google Scholar
  31. Kohn, P. M., and Macdonald, J. E. (1992). Hassles, anxiety, and negative well-being,Anxiety, stress, and coping (in press).Google Scholar
  32. Kohn, P. M., Lafreniere, K., and Gurevich, M. (1991). Hassles, health, and personality.J. Person. Soc. Psychol., 61: 478–482.Google Scholar
  33. Kohn, P. M., Lafreniere, K., and Gurevich, M. (1990). The Inventory of College Students' Recent Life Experiences: A decontaminated hassles scale for a special population.J. Behav. Med. 13: 619–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Lazarus, R. S. (1984). Puzzles in the study of daily hassles,J. Behav. Med. 7: 375–389.Google Scholar
  35. Lazarus, R. S., and Folkman, S. (1987). Transactional theory and research on emotions and coping.Eur. J. Personal. 1: 141–169.Google Scholar
  36. Lazarus, R. S., De Longis, A., Folkman, S., and Green, R. (1985). Stress and adaptational outcomes: The problem of confounded measures.Am. Psychol. 40: 770–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Lichtenberg, P. A., Swensen, C. H., and Skehan, M. W. (1986). Further investigation of the role of personality, lifestyle and arthritic severity in predicting pain.J. Psychosom. Res. 30: 327–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Marziali, E. A., and Pilkonis, P. A. (1986). The measurement of subjective response to stressful life events.J. Hum. Stress 12: 5–12.Google Scholar
  39. Miller, M. J., Wilcox, C. J., and Soper, B. (1985). Measuring hassles and uplifts among adolescents: A different approach to the study of stress.School Counsellor 33: 107–110.Google Scholar
  40. Monroe, S. M. (1983). Major and minor life events as predictors of psychological distress: Further issues and findings.J. Behav. Med. 6: 189–205.Google Scholar
  41. Nakano, K. (1988). Hassles as a measure of stress in a Japanese sample: Preliminary research.Psychol. Rep. 63: 252–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Nakazato, K., and Shimonaka, Y. (1989). The Japanese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: Age and sex differences.Percept, Motor Skills 69: 611–617.Google Scholar
  43. Nigro, G., and Galli, I. (1985). On the relationship between Machiavellianism and anxiety among Italian undergraduates.Psychol. Rep. 56: 37–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Nowack, K. (1986). Type A, hardiness, and psychological distress.J. Behav. Med. 9: 537–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Reich, W. P., Parrella, D. P., and Filstead, W. J. (1988). Unconfounding the Hassles Scale: External sources versus internal responses to stress.J. Behav, Med. 11: 239–249.Google Scholar
  46. Simon, A., and Thomas, A. (1983). Test data for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for British Further Education, Certificate of Education and B.Ed, students.Personal. Indiv. Differ. 4: 199–200.Google Scholar
  47. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., and Lushene, R. E. (1970).STAI Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  48. Wagner, B. M., Compas, B. E., and Howell, D. C. (1988). Daily and major life events: A test of an integrative model of psychosocial stress.Am. J. Commun. Psychol. 16: 189–205.Google Scholar
  49. Weinberger, M., Hiner, E. L., and Tierney, W. M. (1987). In support of hassles as a measure of stress in predicting health outcomes.J. Behav. Med. 10: 19–31.Google Scholar
  50. Wolf, T. M., Elston, R. C., and Kissling, G. E. (1989). Relationship of hassles, uplifts, and life events to psychological well-being of freshman medical students.Behav. Med. 15: 37–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Zika, S., and Chamberlain, K. (1987). Relations of hassles and personality to subjective well-being.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 53: 155–162.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul M. Kohn
    • 1
  • Jennifer E. Macdonald
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate Programme in PsychologyYork UniversityNorth YorkCanada

Personalised recommendations