The prevention of cigarette smoking in children: Two- and three-year follow-up comparisons of four prevention strategies

Abstract

Recent studies have suggested that a prevention program that addresses the social influences that encourage smoking can be effective in deterring cigarette use by adolescents. This study presents 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up results from two studies which evaluated three variations of the social influences curriculum and compared them to a health consequences program and a usual-care comparison group. These results suggest that a peer-led, social influences program can restrain smoking among both baseline nonsmokers and baseline experimental smokers at 2 years postintervention. Analyses of attrition data suggest no evidence to threaten the internal validity of these findings, although their generalizability to baseline smokers may be limited.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Arkin, R. M., Roemhild, H. F., Johnson, C. A., Luepker, R. V., and Murray, D. M. (1981). The Minnesota smoking prevention program: A seventh-grade health curriculum supplement.J. School Health 51(9): 611–616.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. (1973). Attitudinal and normative variables as predictors of specific behaviors.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 27(1): 41–57.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bauman, K. E., Koch, G. G., and Bryan, E. S. (1982). Validity of self-reports of adolescent cigarette smoking.Int. J. Addict. 17: 1131–1136.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Best, J. A., Flay, B. R., Towson, S. M., Ryan, K. B., Perry, C. L., Brown, K. S., Kersell, M. W., and d'Avernas, J. R. (1984). Smoking prevention and the concept of risk.J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 14: 257–273.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Biglan, A., and Ary, D. V. (1985). Methodological issues in research on smoking prevention. In Bell, C. S., and Battjes, R. (eds.),Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents, Research Monograph 63, National Institute on Drug Abuse, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Biglan A., Severson, H., Ary, D., Faller, C., Gallison, C., Thompson, R., Glasgow, R., and Lichtenstein, E. (1987). Do smoking prevention programs really work? Attrition and the internal and external validity of an evaluation of a refusal skills training program.J. Behav. Med. 159–171.

  7. Botvin, G. J., and Eng, A. (1980a). A comprehensive school-based smoking prevention program.J. School Health 50: 209–213.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Botvin, G. J., Eng, A., and Williams, C. L. (1980b). Preventing the onset of cigarette smoking through life skills training.Prevent. Med. 9: 130.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Botvin, G. J., Renick, N. L., and Baker, E. (1983). The effects of scheduling format and booster sessions on a broad-spectrum psychosocial approach to smoking prevention.J. Behav. Med. 6: 359–379.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Renick, N. L., Filazzola, A. D., and Botvin, E. M. (1984). A cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention.Addict. Behav. 14: 137–147.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Cook, T. D., and Campbell, D. T. (1979).Quasi-experimentation. Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings, Rand McNally, Chicago.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Evans, R. I. (1976). Smoking in children: Developing a social psychological strategy of deterrence.Prevent. Med. 5: 122–127.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Evans, R. I. (1979). Smoking in children and adolescents. InPsychological Determinants and Prevention Strategies in Smoking and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Evans, R. I., Hansen, W. B., and Mittelmark, M. (1977). Increasing the validity of self-reports of smoking behavior in children.J. Appl. Psychol. 65: 521–523.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Evans, R. I., Rozelle, R. M., and Mittelmark, M. B. (1978). Deterring the onset of smoking in children: Knowledge of immediate physiological effects and coping with peer pressure, media pressure and parent modeling.J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 8: 126–135.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Evans, R. I., Rozelle, R. M., Maxwell, S. E., Raines, B. E., Dill, C. A., Guthrie, T. J., Henderson, A. H., and Hill, P. C. (1981). Social modeling films to deter smoking in adolescents. Results of a three-year field investigation.J. Appl. Psychol. 66: 399–414.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Fienberg, S. E. (1980).The Analysis of Cross-Classified Categorical Data, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Flay, B. R. (1985). Psychosocial approaches to smoking prevention: A review of findings.Health Psychol. 4: 449–488.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Flay, B., d'Avernas, J., Best, J., Kersell, M., and Ryan, K. (1982). Cigarette smoking: Why young people do it and ways of preventing it. In Firestone, P., and McGrath, P. (eds.),Ped. Behav. Med. Springer-Verlag, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Hansen, W. B., Malotte, C. K., and Fielding, J. E. (1985). The bogus pipeline revisted: The use of the threat of detection as a means of increasing self-reports of tobacco use.J. Appl. Psychol. 70(4): 789–792.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Hopkins, K. D. (1983). A strategy for analyzing anova designs having one or more random factors.Educ. Psychol. Measure 43: 107–113.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Hurd, P. D., Johnson, C. A., Pechacek, T., Bast, L. P., Jacobs, D. R., and Luepker, R. V. (1980). Prevention of cigarette smoking in seventh grade students.J. Behav. Med. 3: 15–27.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Luepker, R. V., Pechacek, T. F., Murray, D. M., Johnson, C. A., Hund, F., and Jacobs, D. R. (1981). Saliva thicyanate: A chemical indicator of cigarette smoking in adolescents.Am. J. Public Health 71: 1320–1324.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Luepker, R. V., Johnson, C. A., Murray, D. M., and Pechacek, T. F. (1983). Prevention of cigarette smoking: Three-year follow-up of an education program for youth.J. Behav. Med. 6(1): 53–61.

    Google Scholar 

  25. McAlister, A., Perry, C., and Maccoby, N. (1979). Adolescent smoking: Onset and prevention.Pediatrics 63: 650–658.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. McAlister, A., Perry, C. L., Killen, J., Slinkard, L. A., and Maccoby, N. (1980). Pilot study of smoking, alcohol and drug abuse prevention.Am. J. Public Health 70: 719–721.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Murray, D. M., and Perry, C. L. (1987). The measurement of substance use among adolescents: When is the “bogus pipeline” method needed?Addict. Behav. 12: 225–233.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Murray, D. M., Luepker, R. V., Johnson, C. A., and Mittelmark, M. B. (1984). The prevention of cigarette smoking in children: A comparison of four strategies.J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 14: 274–288.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Murray, D. M., O'Connell, C. M., Schmid, L. A., and Perry, C. L. (1987). The validity of smoking self-reports by adolescents: A reexamination of the bogus pipeline procedure.Addict. Behav. 12: 7–15.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Pechacek, T. F., Murray, D. M., Luepker, R. V., Mittelmark, M. B., Johnson, C. A., and Shultz, J. (1984). Measurement of adolescent smoking behavior: Rationale and methods.J. Behav. Med. 7(1): 123–140.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Perry, C. L., Maccoby, N., and McAlister, A. L. (1980a). Adolescent smoking prevention: A third year follow-up.World Smoking Health 5(3): 40–45.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Perry, C., Killen, J., Telch, M., Slinkard, L. A., and Danaher, B. G. (1980b). Modifying smoking behavior of teenagers: A school-based intervention.Am. J. Public Health 70(7): 722–725.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Renick, N. L., and Botvin, G. J. (1985). Enhancing junior high school students' life skills as a smoking prevention strategy.Health Educ. 16(3): 45–49.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Schinke, S. P., Gilchrist, L. D., and Snow, W. H. (1985). Skills intervention to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescents.Am. J. Public Health 75: 665–667.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Snow, W. H., Gilchrist, L. D., and Schinke, S. P. (1985). A critique of progress in adolescent smoking prevention.Children Youth Serv. Rev. 1: 1–19.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Telch, M. J., Killen, J. D., McAlister, A. L., Perry, C. L., and Maccoby, N. (1982). Long-term follow-up of a pilot project on smoking prevention with adolescents.J. Behav. Med. 5: 1–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Tell, G. S., Klepp, K. I., Vellar, O. D., and McAlister, A. (1984). Preventing the onset of cigarette smoking in Norwegian adolescents: The Oslo youth study.Prevent. Med. 13: 256–275.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Winer, B. J. (1971).Statistical Principals in Experimental Design, McGraw-Hill, New York.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to David M. Murray.

Additional information

This work was supported by a contract from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (N01 HD 92831) and by grants from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (R01 HD 12801), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01 DA/HD 03205), and the National Cancer Institute (R01 CA 38275)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Murray, D.M., Richards, P.S., Luepker, R.V. et al. The prevention of cigarette smoking in children: Two- and three-year follow-up comparisons of four prevention strategies. J Behav Med 10, 595–611 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00846657

Download citation

Key words

  • adolescent
  • smoking
  • prevention
  • social influences