Advertisement

Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 187–201 | Cite as

Control over uplifts and hassles and its relationship to adaptational outcomes

  • Allen D. Kanner
  • S. Shirley Feldman
Article

Abstract

The relationship of perceived control over daily uplifts and hassles to depression and restraint was examined in a sample of 140 middle-class sixth graders. Results indicated that greater control over uplifts was associated with better functioning and lower control over hassles with poorer functioning, even after partialing out the respective number of uplifts and hassles reported. Moreover, when directly compared, control over uplifts showed more powerful associations with adaptational outcomes than did control over hassles. In a separate analysis, the number of uplifts over which children reported high control showed opposite relationships to adaptational outcomes than did the number of uplifts over which children reported low control. A different pattern appeared for hassles. Although the number of hassles with low control was associated with poorer functioning, the number of hassles over which children had high control was unrelated to adaptational outcomes. The possibility that control operates somewhat differently for positive and negative events is discussed.

Key words

adaptational outcome control depression hassles uplifts 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bandura, A. (1986).Social Foundations of Thought and Action, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  2. Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority.Dev. Psychol. Monogr. 41: Part 2.Google Scholar
  3. Baumrind, D. (1975).Early Socialization and the Discipline Controversy, General Learning Press, Morristown, NJ.Google Scholar
  4. Bobo, J. K., Gilchrist, L. D., Elmer, J. F., Snow, W. H., and Schinke, S. P. (1986). Hassles, role strain, and peer relations in young adolescents.J. Early Adoles. 6: 339–352.Google Scholar
  5. Coddington, R. D. (1972). The significance of life events as etiologic factors in the disease of children. II. A study of a normal population.J. Psychosom. Res. 16: 205–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohen, L. H., Burt, C. E., and Bjork, J. P. (1987). Life stress and adjustment: Effects of life events experienced by young adolescents and their parents.Dev. Psychol. 23: 583–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Compas, B. E. (1987). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence.Psychol. Bull. 101: 393–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Compas, B. E., Davis, G. E., Forsythe, C. J., and Wagner, B. M. (1987). Assessment of major and daily stressful events during adolescence: The Adolescent Perceived Events Scale.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 55: 534–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Compas, B. E., Malcarne, V. L., and Fondacaro, K. M. (1988). Coping with stressful events in older children and young adolescents.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 56: 405–411.Google Scholar
  10. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being.Psychol. Bull. 95: 542–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Feldman, S. S., and Quatman, T. (1988). Teen timetable as described by 12 year old boys and their parents.J. Early Adoles. 8: 325–343.Google Scholar
  12. Horner, M. S. (1970). Femininity and successful achievement. In Bardwick, J. M.,et al. (eds.),Feminine Personality and Conflict, Brooks/Cole, Monterey, CA, pp. 45–73.Google Scholar
  13. Horner, M. S. (1971). The psychological significance of success in competitive achievement situations: A threat as well as a promise. In Day, H., Berlyne, D. E., and Hunt, D. E. (eds.).Intrinsic Motivation: A New Direction in Education, Holt, Canada.Google Scholar
  14. Johnson, J. (1986).Life Events as Stressors in Childhood and Adolescence, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.Google Scholar
  15. Kanner, A. D., Kafry, D., and Pines, A. (1978). Conspicuous in its absence: The lack of positive conditions as a source of stress.J. Hum. Stress 4: 33–39.Google Scholar
  16. Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C., Schaefer, C., and Lazarus, R. S. (1981). Comparison of two modes of stress management: Daily hassles vs. major life events.J. Behav. Med. 4: 1–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kanner, A. D., Harrison, A., and Wertlieb, D. (1985). Development of the Children's Hassles and Uplifts Scales, Poster session presentation at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  18. Kanner A. D., Feldman, S. S., Weinberger, D. A., and Ford, M. E. (1987). Uplifts, hassles, and adaptational outcomes in preadolescents.J. Early Adoles. 7: 371–394.Google Scholar
  19. Kovacs, M. (1980). Rating scales to assess depression in school-aged children.Acta Paedo-psychiat. 46: 305–315.Google Scholar
  20. Matheny, K. B., and Cupp, P. (1983). Control, desirability, and anticipation as moderating variables between life change and illness.J. Hum. Stress 9: 14–23.Google Scholar
  21. Monroe, S. M. (1983). Major and minor life events as predictors of psychological distress: Further issues and findings.J. Behav. Med. 6: 189–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Reich, J., and Zautra, A. (1981). Life events and personal causation: Some relationships with satisfaction and distress.J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 41: 1002–1012.Google Scholar
  23. Scarr, S., and McCartney, K. (1983). How people make their own environments: A theory of genotype-environment effects.Child Dev. 54: 425–435.Google Scholar
  24. Seligman, M. E. P. (1975).Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death, W. H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Siddique, C. M., and D'Arcy (1984). Adolescence, stress, and psychological well-being.J. Youth Adoles. 13: 459–473.Google Scholar
  26. Skinner, E. A., Chapman, M., and Baltes, P. B. (1988). Control, means-end, and agency beliefs: A new conceptualization and its measurement during childhood.J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 54: 117–133.Google Scholar
  27. Vinokur, A., and Caplan, R. D. (1986). Cognitive and affective components of life events: Their relations and effects on well-being.Am. J. Commun. Psychol. 14: 351–370.Google Scholar
  28. Weinberger, D. A., Feldman, S. S., and Ford, M. E. (1990). Construct validation of the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory, Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allen D. Kanner
    • 1
  • S. Shirley Feldman
    • 1
  1. 1.Stanford Center for the Study of Families, Children and YouthStanford UniversityStanford

Personalised recommendations