Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 509–524 | Cite as

The Type A city: Coronary heart disease and the pace of life

  • Robert V. Levine
  • Karen Lynch
  • Kunitate Miyake
  • Marty Lucia


The relationship between the pace of life and coronary heart disease (CHD) was examined in a total of 36 small, medium, and large metropolitan areas across the United States. Four indicators of pace were observed: walking speed, articulation rate (talking speed), bank teller speed (work speed), and the proportion of individuals wearing watches (concern with clock time). Pace of life was strongly related to death rates from coronary heart disease both across cities and across regions of the country. This provides support, on a sociological level, for Wright's (1988) contention that time urgency is a toxic element of the Type A behavior pattern. It is proposed that individuals living in fast-paced cities may be more prone to unhealthy behaviors (e.g., cigarette smoking), which place them at a greater risk for CHD. The relationship among cities' temporal norms, Type A time urgency, and coronary heart disease is also discussed.

Key words

coronary disease pace of life Type A pattern 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert V. Levine
    • 1
  • Karen Lynch
    • 1
  • Kunitate Miyake
    • 1
  • Marty Lucia
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCalifornia State UniversityFresno

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