Endurance for dynamic exercise, cardiac output, blood pressure, heart rate, ventilation, and oxygen consumption was measured in eight individuals with paraplegia at the end of 4-min bouts of exercise on a friction braked cycle ergometer. Movement of the subjects' legs was induced by electrically stimulating the quadriceps, gluteus maximus and hamstring muscles with a computer-controlled biphasic square — wave current at a frequency of 30 Hz. The friction braked cycle ergometer was pedalled at work rates which varied between 0 and 40 W. Measurements were repeated after 3 and 6 months to assess the affect of training. After 3 months of training it was found that endurance increased from 8 min at a work rate of 0 W to 30 min at a work rate of 40 W. Compared to the cardiovascular responses in non-paralyzed subjects, computerized cycle ergometry was found to be associated with higher relative stresses for a given level of absolute work. Mean blood pressure, for example, increased by over 30% during maximal work in individuals with paralysis compared to the typical response obtained for able-bodied subjects. Analysis of the data showed that instead of the 20-30% metabolic efficiency commonly reported for cycle ergometry, the calculated metabolic efficiency during computer-controlled cycle ergometry was only 3.6%.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Astrand P, Rodahl K (1977) Textbook of work physiology: physiological bases of exercise, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York
Benedict F, Cathcart E (1912) Muscular work. Publ. No. 187. Carnegie Institute of Washington, D.C.
Brown M, Cotter M, Hudlicka O, Vrobova G (1976) The effects of different patterns of muscle activity on capillary density, mechanical properties and structures of slow and fast rabbit muscles. Pflügers Arch 36:241
Burke D, Murray D (1975) Handbook of spinal cord medicine. MacMillan, London
Coote J, Hilton S, Perez-Gonzalez J (1971) The reflex nature of the pressure response to isometric exercise. J Physiol (Lond) 215:789–804
Corbett J, Frankel H, Harris p (1970) Cardiovascular changes associated with skeletal muscle spasm in tetraphlegic men. J Physiol (Lond) 215:381–387
Dickenson S (1929) The efficiency of bicycle pedalling as affected by speed and load. J Physiol (Lond) 66:242–255
Foege GW (ed) (1985) Injury in America. National Academy Press, Washington, DC
Guttman L (1976) Spinal cord injuries: comprehensive management and research, 2nd edn. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford
Hermansen L, Saltin B (1969) Oxygen uptake during maximal treadmill and bicycle exercise. J Appl Physiol 26:31–37
Kennedy E (ed) (1986) Spinal cord injury: facts and figures. University of Alabama Press, Birmingham
Levine S, Brooks C, Cederna P, Friedman R (1985) Functional electrical stimulation for prevention of pressure sores. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 32:889
Lieberson W, Dow M, Holmquest J, Scott D (1961) Functional electrotherapy: stimulation of the peroneal nerve synchronized with the swing phase of gait of hemiplegic patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 42:101–105
Mitchell JH (1990) Neural control of the circulation during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 22:141–154
Perez-Gonzalez J (1981) Factors determining the blood pressure response to isometric exercise. Circ Res 48:76–86
Petrofsky J (1981) Isometric exercise. Thomas, Springfield, Ill.
Petrofsky J (1991) Health care benefits of FES exercise. J Neurol Orthop Med (in press)
Petrofsky J, Phillips C (1983) Active physical therapy — a modern approach to rehabilitation therapy. J Neurol Orthop Surg 4:165–173
Petrofsky J, Phillips C (1984) The use of functional electrical stimulation for rehabilitation of spinal-cord-injured patients. Cent Nerv Syst Trauma 1:57–72
Petrofsky J, Smith J (1988) Computer aided rehabilitation. Aviat Space Environ Med 59:670–679
Petrofsky J, Burse R, Lind A, Rinehart J, Rochelle R (1975) The assessment of static component in rhythmic exercise. J Appl Physiol 34:55–63
Petrofsky J, Lind A, Rinehart J (1976) Isometric strength and endurance in slow and fast muscles in the cat. Fed Proc 35:291
Petrofsky J, Glaser R, Griner J, Phillips C (1982) The effect of electrically induced bicycle ergometry on blood pressure and heart rate. The Physiologist 25:253
Petrofsky J, Heaton H, Phillips C (1983a) Outdoor bicycle for exercise in paraplegics and quadriplegics. J Biomed Eng 5:296–297
Petrofsky J, Glaser R, Heaton H, Phillips C (1983b) Application of the Apple as a microprocessor-controlled stimulator. College Microcomputer 1:97–104
Petrofsky J, Glaser R, Heaton H, Phillips C (1984) Bicycle ergometer for paralyzed muscle. J Clin Eng 9:13–19
Petrofsky J, Hendershot D, Phillips C (1985) Cardiovascular responses of paralyzed individuals during electrically induced isokinetic exercise. J Orthop Neurol Surg 6:230–241
Ragnarsson K, Edgar R, Nash M, O'Daniel W Jr, Petrofsky J, Pollack S (1988) Clinical evaluation of computerized functional electrical stimulation after spinal cord injury: multicenter pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 69:672–677
Rybicki K, Kaufman J, Kenyon J, Mitchell J (1984) Arterial pressure responses to increased interstitial potassium in hindlimb muscle in dogs. Am J Physiol 247:717–721
Sawka M (1976) Physiology of upper body exercise. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 14:175–212
Simonson E (1971) Physiology of work capacity and fatigue. Thomas, Springfield, Ill.
Sunderland S (1968) Nerves and nerve injuries. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore
Tenkosky A, Bajd T, Malezi C (1976) A dynamic model of the xnee joint under functional electrical stimulation and free movement and isometric conditions. J Biomech 9:509–519
Van der Meulen JP, Peckham PH, Mortimer JT (1974) Trophic functions of the neuron. Three mechanisms of neurotrophic interactions. Use and disuse of muscle. Ann NY Acad Sci 228:177–189
Vrbova G (1963) The effect of motorneuron activity on the speed of contraction of striated muscle. J Physiol (Lond) 169:513–526
Young J, Brwen A, Burns P, McCutcheon R (1982) Spinal cord injury statistics: experience of regional spinal cord injury systems. Good Samaritan Medical Center, Phoenix
Zealer D, Dedo H (1977) Control of paralyzed axial muscles by electrical stimulation. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 84:310
About this article
Cite this article
Petrofsky, J.S., Stacy, R. The effect of training on endurance and the cardiovascular responses of individuals with paraplegia during dynamic exercise induced by functional electrical stimulation. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 64, 487–492 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00843755
- Spinal cord injury