Optical and Quantum Electronics

, Volume 28, Issue 7, pp 843–865 | Cite as

Ultrafast-ultrafine probing of high-speed electrical waveforms using a scanning force microscope with photoconductive gating

  • J. Nees
  • S. I. Wakana
  • S. Hama
Invited Papers


Picosecond photoconductivity in low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT GaAs) has been used to provide temporal resolution both in rigid probes and in scanning force microscope probes. This article reviews the fabrication and use of such probes. 2.5 ps temporal resolution and few microvolts sensitivity are obtained at arbitrary points on circuits with a spatial definition of 100 nm. Rigid probes are tested in application to analogue and digital circuits. As an alternative to electron beam testing, scanning force probes are applied toin situ imaging and waveform measurement. Finally, the use of time-resolved waveform analysis with scanning-force microscopy probes with semiconductor laser sources is demonstrated.


GaAs Temporal Resolution Laser Source Microscope Probe Semiconductor Laser 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Nees
    • 1
  • S. I. Wakana
    • 2
  • S. Hama
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Ultrafast Optical ScienceUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Fujitsu Laboratories LtdKanagawaJapan

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