Advertisement

GeoJournal

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 447–456 | Cite as

Indigenous Finnic population of NW Russia

  • Kurs Ott 
Article
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

In the Middle Ages, before the colonization of eastern Slaves, the area between the Upper Volga and the White Sea was settled bv Finno-Ugric population. In the northern belt lived Sami (Lapp), in the southern Vepsian, Karelian and other Baltic-Finnic tribes. Those peoples were baptized by the Russian orthodox church and incorporated into the Russian state. As a result of Russian-Swedish wars Karelia was divided and split up and Karelians were dispersed. At the beginning of the Soviet period national territorial divisions were organized for the largest groups of Karelians in Eastern and Tver Karelia. Certain territorial divisions were also established for the Vepsians and the Kola Sami. Nowadays, after half a century (about 1937–1987) of Russification and social oppression, all these minority groups are rebuilding their ethnic identity and cultural institutions. Due to earlier repressions and the assimilation policy of Soviet power, the viability of these ethnic minorities is still smaller than it was before World War II. While the numbers of Karelians and Vepsians in the 1930s were 250,000 and 35,000 respectively, but in 1989, the numbers were only 124,900 and 12,100. The total number of the Russian Sami (approximately 1,800) has not changed but the role of the Sami in the Kola Lapland is now insignificant.

Keywords

Assimilation Ethnic Minority Minority Group Ethnic Identity Territorial Division 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ageyeva, R. A.: Substratnaâ gidronimiâ zapadnoj časti Kalininskoj oblasti (v granicah istoričeskoj Derevskoj pâtiny), 104–111. Summary: The substratum hydronyms of the western part of the Kalinin district, 212. Toponimiâ Central'noj Rossii. Voprosy geografii 94. Moskva (1974)Google Scholar
  2. Branch, Michael: A. J. Sjögren's Studies of the North. Mémoires de la Société Finno-ougrienne 152, Helsinki (1973)Google Scholar
  3. Bubrich, D. V.: Ru\(\dot s\)skoe gosudarstvo i sformirovanie karel'skogo naroda, 3–32. Pribaltijsko-finskoe âzykoznanie. Voprosy vzaimodejstviâ pribaltijsko-finskih âzykov s inosistemnymi âzykami. Leningrad 1971.Google Scholar
  4. East Carelia and Kola Lapmark. Compiled by Theodor Homén. Fennia 42:3. Helsingfors (1921)Google Scholar
  5. Eek, Arvo: Probleme der lappischen Sprache und Kultur auf der Konferenz in Lujavr, 237–240. Sovetskoe finno-ugrovedenie Soviet Finno-Ugric Studies, Tallinn 1984.Google Scholar
  6. Finno-ugorskie narody. Statističeskij sbornik. Goskomitet Respubliki Komi, Svktyvkar 1992.Google Scholar
  7. Harris, Chauncy D.: A Geographic Analysis of Non-Russian Minorities in Russia and Its Ethnic Homelands. Post-Soviet Geography 34, 543–597. Silver Spring (1993)Google Scholar
  8. Honko, Lauri; Timonen, Senni; Branch, Michael: The Great Bear. A Thematic Anthology of Oral Poetry in the Finno-Ugrian Languages. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran Toimituksia 533. Helsinki (1993)Google Scholar
  9. Iofa, L. E.: Karel'skaâ zona, 129–190. Učenye zapiski Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, vyp. 38. Geografiâ. Moskva (1940)Google Scholar
  10. Itkonen, Terho: Suomessa puhutun suomen kantasuomalaiset juuret. Summary: The Proto-Finnic roots of Finnish spoken in Finland, 347–363. Suomen väestön esihistorialliset juuret. Bidrag till kännedom av Finlands natur och folk. Utgivna av Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten 131, Helsinki (1984)Google Scholar
  11. Kaikuja Karjalasta. Toimittaneet Kaisu Lahikainen ja Armas Mashin. Helsinki 1993.Google Scholar
  12. Kert, G. M.: Strukturnye tipy saamskoj toponimii, 64–68. In: Pribaltijsko-finskoe âzykoznanie. Petrozavodsk (1991)Google Scholar
  13. Kirkinen, Heikki: Karjalan kansan synty ja hajoaminen. Summary: The origin and dispersion of the Karelian people, 270–278. Terra (1993)Google Scholar
  14. Kiselev, A. A.; Kiseleva, T. A.: Sovetskie saamy: istoriâ, èkonomika, kul'tura. Murmansk 1979.Google Scholar
  15. Klaus, Vâino: Ob alfavite i orfografii literaturnogo âzyka kol'skih saamov. Zusammenfassung: Zum Alphabet und zur Orthographie der kolalappischen Schriftsprache, 274–281. Sovetskoe finno-ugrovedenie / Soviet Finno-Ugric Studies. Tallinn (1989)Google Scholar
  16. Korhonen, Mikko: Suomalaisten suomalais-ugrilainen tausta historiallis-vertailevan kielitieteen valossa. Summary: The Finno-Ugrian background of the Finns in the light of comparative historical linguistics. 55–71. Suomen väestön esihistorialliset juuret. Bidrag till kännedom av Finlands natur och folk. Utgivna av Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten 131. Helsinki (1984)Google Scholar
  17. Kurs, Ott: Neuvostokirjallisuutta Kuolan saamelaisista, 7–12. Maapallo. Helsinki (1989a)Google Scholar
  18. Kurs, Ott: Vepsä ja vepsäläiset, 115–124. Maapallo. Helsinki (1981b)Google Scholar
  19. Kurs, Ott: Sur la géographie ethnique et politique en Ingrie et Estonie, 171–172. Revue Géographique De L'Est. Nancy (1991)Google Scholar
  20. Kurs, Ott: Hñimud hääbumas. Karjalased Ida-Karjalas, 120–136. Summary: Karelians — the pershing native population of Russian Karelia, 181–182. Akadeemia, Tartu (1992)Google Scholar
  21. Kurs, Ott: Ingria: The Broken Landbridge between Estonia and Finland. GeoJournal 33,1, 107–113 (1994)Google Scholar
  22. Kährik, Aime: Kaduvuse tuhanded vormid. Vepslased 20. sajandil, 1595–1613. Summary: Numberless forms of fading away: Vepsians in the 20th century, 1750–1751. Akadeemia, Tartu 1990.Google Scholar
  23. Laine, Antti: Suomalaiset tiedemiehet ja Itä-Karjala: suomalaisen Itä-Karjalan tutkimuksen katkeamaton ketju. Summary: Finnish scientists and Eastern Karelia: the unbroken chain of Finnish East Karelian research, 299–307. Terra, Helsinki (1993)Google Scholar
  24. Lallukka, Seppo: Tverinkarjalainen väestöromahdus. 59–71. Suomen Antropologi, Helsinki (1992)Google Scholar
  25. Lehtiranta, Juhani: K voprosu o sozdanii pis'mennosti dlâ kol'skih saamov. Summary: How should a literary language for the Kola Lapps be created, 25–30. Sovetskoe finno-ugrovedenie / Soviet Finno-Ugric Studies, Tallinn (1986)Google Scholar
  26. Lukâčenko, T. V.: Material'naâ kul'tura Saamov (loparej) Kol'skogo poluostrova v konce XIX–XX v. Moskva 1971.Google Scholar
  27. Mamontova, N.; Mullonen, I.: Pribaltijsko finskaâ geografičeskaâ leksika Karelii. Petrozavodsk 1991.Google Scholar
  28. Manninen, I: Soome sugu rahvaste etnograafia. Tartu 1999.Google Scholar
  29. Matlev, Ian M.: Demographic Trends and Assimilation Among the Finnic-Speaking Peoples of North-Western Russia, 167–185. Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher 48, Wiesbaden (1976)Google Scholar
  30. Nevalainen, Pekka: Karjala 1900-luvulla. Summary: Karelia in the twentieth century, 291–298. Terra: Helsinki (1993)Google Scholar
  31. Nickul, Karl: Saameiaiset kansana ja kansalaisina. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran Toimituksia 297. Helsinki 1970.Google Scholar
  32. Polin, Anatoli K.: Karjalan rajojen piirtyminen maailmankartallle. Summary: History of the borders of the Republic of Karelia, 264–269. Terra, Helsinki (1993)Google Scholar
  33. Põllu, Kaljo: Tallinna Kunstiülikooli kümme soome-ugri uurimisreisi / Tallinn Art University's Ten Expeditions to the Finno-Ugrians. Tallinn 1990.Google Scholar
  34. Problemy istorii i kul'tury vepsskoj narodnosti. Petrozavodsk 1989.Google Scholar
  35. Punžina, A. V.: Problemy razvitiâ terminologii karel'skogo âzyka, 69–76. Pribaltijsko-finskoe âzykoznanie. Petrozavodsk 1991.Google Scholar
  36. Pärdi, Heiki: Saamid, meie kauged keelesugulased, 771–777. Summary: Our distant linguistic kinsfolk — the Sami people, 822–823. Eesti Loodus, Tartu (1982)Google Scholar
  37. Sammallahti, Pekka: Saamelaisten esihistoriallinen tausta kielitieteen valossa. Summary: The prehistorical background of the Lapps in the light of linguistics, 137–156. Suomen väestön esihistorialliset juuret. Bidrag till kännedom av Finlands natur och folk. Utgivna av Finska Vetenskaps Societeten. 131, Helsinki (1984)Google Scholar
  38. Sammallahti, Pekka: Juured, 321–324. Keel ja Kirjandus. Tallinn (1994)Google Scholar
  39. Sedov, V. V.: Etničeskij sostav Novgorodskoj zemli. 74–84. Finnougry i slavâne. Leningrad 1979.Google Scholar
  40. Tõnisson, Evald: Kuidas meist said läänemeresoomlased, 2243–2282. Summary: How we became Balto-Finns, 2441–2442. Akadeemia, Tartu (1990)Google Scholar
  41. Ulukhanov, I. S.: Proishoždenie nazvaniâ Volga, 105–107. Izučenie geografočeskih nazvanij. Voprosy geografii 70. Moskva (1966)Google Scholar
  42. Uralilaiset kansat: Tietoa suomen sukukielista ja niiden puhujista. Toimittanut Johanna Laakso. Porvoo-Helsinki Juva 1991.Google Scholar
  43. Vahtola, Jouko: Itä Karjala Suomen politiikassa 1818–1922. Summary: Finnish military policies towards Eastern Karelia in 1918–1922, 280–290. Terra, Helsinki (1993)Google Scholar
  44. Veršinskij, A.; Zolotarev, D.: Naselenie Tverskogo kraâ. S ètnografičeskoj kartoj, sostavlennoj S. D. Sinicinym. Tver' 1929.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurs Ott 
    • 1
  1. 1.Geograafia InstituutTartu ÜlikoolTartuEesti/Estonia

Personalised recommendations