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GeoJournal

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 439–446 | Cite as

The pattern of diplomatic sanctions against South Africa 1948–1994

  • Christopher A. J. 
Article
  • 92 Downloads

Abstract

South Africa was the object of a concerted international campaign of diplomatic isolation against the policy of apartheid during the era of National Party rule between 1948 and 1994. Part of the isolation was self-inflicted with the rejection of states with communist governments or the presence of African diplomats. South Africa became one of the international “pariah” states. The country therefore maintained only a small foreign service, which was spatially concentrated, notably in western Europe and North America. Attempts to expand diplomatic contacts before 1990 were limited mainly to Latin America as the foreign response was essentially hostile. The end of the Cold War enabled South Africa to extend its representation abroad, particularly in eastern Europe, but the majority of African and Asian states only established formal ties with the country following the first universal franchise elections and the installation of President Nelson Mandela as the first African head of state in May 1994.

Keywords

Europe Environmental Management North America Communist Government Asian State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher A. J. 
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of Port ElizabethPort ElizabethSouth Africa

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