Advertisement

GeoJournal

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 19–26 | Cite as

The relationship between indigenous pastoralist resource tenure and state tenure in Somalia

  • Unruh Jon D. 
Article

Abstract

Indigenous resource tenure systems in Africa have evolved to meet the constraints and opportunities of often difficult biophysical environments, while facilitating the operation of complex spatial and temporal land use patterns. Traditional systems provide security of tenure in culturally relevant ways that permit adaptation to new circumstances. On the other hand imposed tenure structures in Africa have often not strengthened individual rights and have often blocked indigenous tenure development and adaption in response to new situations.

Pastoralists in Africa have in particular been negatively impacted by the imposition of national tenure systems which in many cases have served to marginalize nomadic populations, with repercussions in land degradation, food security, and instability.

In Somalia the transient resource rights and resource use arrangements that are critical to transhumant pastoralism were ignored in the formulation of the national tenure regime which favored crop cultivation. The results were increased land degradation, resource use conflicts, declines in pastoral production, and impacts on Somali clan alliances which in many cases regulate rational resource access and use.

Somalia possesses the greatest proportion of pastoralists in Africa. Transhumant pastoralism, as the most widespread agricultural enterprise in the country, will play a critical role in food production for the foreseeable future. However, the relationship between indigenous pastoralist tenure and state imposed tenure has, in many locations decreased the ability of pastoralism to reproduce itself, thereby compromising the rational utilization of very large areas of rangeland interior, which have very few alternative uses.

Keywords

Land Degradation Crop Cultivation Pastoral Production State Tenure Tenure System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Al-Najim, M. N.; Briggs, J.: Livestock Development in Somalia — a Critical Review. GeoJournal 26, 357–362 (1992)Google Scholar
  2. Baxter, P. T. W.: The ‘new’ east African pastoralist: an overview. In: Markakis, J. (ed.), Conflict and the Decline of Pastoralism on the Horn of Africa. The Macmillan Press Ltd., London 1993.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, J. W.; Lawry, S. W.; Riddell, J. C.: Land tenure and livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. AID Evaluation Special Study No. 39. Land Tenure Center and US Agency for International Development 1986.Google Scholar
  4. Bennett, O. (ed.): Greenwar: Environment and Conflict. The Panos Institute, Budapest 1991.Google Scholar
  5. Breman, H.; Cisse, A. M.; Djiteye, M. A.; Elberse, W. Th.: Pasture and forage availability in the Sahel. Israel Journal of Botany 28, 227–251 (1979)Google Scholar
  6. Bruce, J.: Land tenure issues in project design and strategies for agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA 1986.Google Scholar
  7. de Bruijn, M.; van Dijk, H.: State formation and the decline of pastoralism: the Fulani in central Niger. In: Markakis, J. (ed.), Conflict and the Decline of Pastoralism in the Horn of Africa. The Macmillan Press Ltd., London 1993.Google Scholar
  8. Clark, J.: Debacle in Somalia.Foreign Affairs 72, 109–123 (1993)Google Scholar
  9. Dornbos, M.: Pasture and polis: the roots of political marginalization of Somali pastoralism. In: Markakis, J. (ed.), Conflict and the Decline of Pastoralism in the Horn of Africa. The Macmillan Press Ltd., London 1993.Google Scholar
  10. Dyson-Hudson, N.: Pastoral production systems and livestock development projects: an east African Perspective. In: Cernea, M. M. (ed.), Putting People First: Sociological Variables in Rural Development. Oxford University Press, London 1985.Google Scholar
  11. Fadal, M. O.: The ongoing process of gradual disintegration of the traditional social and economic systems of pastoralism in Somalia. In: Labahn, T. (ed.), Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Somali Studies. University of Hamburg, August 1–6, 1983. Helmut Buske Verlag, Hamburg 1984.Google Scholar
  12. Gunn, S.: Somalia. In: Powelson, J. P.; Sock, R. (eds.), The Peasant Betrayed: Agriculture and Land Reform in the Third World. The Cato Institute, Washington DC 1990.Google Scholar
  13. Helander, B.: The social dynamics of southern Somali agropastoralism: a regional approach. In: Conze, P.; Labahn, P. (eds.), Somalia: Agriculture in the Winds of Change. Saarbrücken 1986.Google Scholar
  14. Hooglund, E.: Government and politics. In: Metz, H. C. (ed.), Somalia: A Country Study. Fourth edition, Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, Washington DC 1993.Google Scholar
  15. Ibrahim, F. N.: Combating Famine by Grain Storage in Western Sudan. GeoJournal 14, 29–35 (1987)Google Scholar
  16. Krokfors, C.: Environmental considerations and planning in Somalia. In: Labahn, T. (ed.), Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Somali Studies. University of Hamburg, August 1–6, 1983. Helmut Buske Verlag, Hamburg 1984.Google Scholar
  17. Laitin, D. D.; Samatar, S. S.: Somalia: Nation in Search of a State. Westview Press, Boulder 1987.Google Scholar
  18. Land Resources Development Center (LRDC): Land Use in Tsetse-Affected Areas of Southern Somalia. Tolworth Tower, Tolworth, Surbiton, KT6 7 DY, UK 1985.Google Scholar
  19. Lawry, S. W.: Tenure policy and natural resource management in Sahelian west Africa. Land Tenure Center Paper No. 130, Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, USA 1989.Google Scholar
  20. Markakis, J.: Introduction. In: Markakis, J. (ed.), Conflict and the Decline of Pastoralism in the Horn of Africa. The Macmillan Press Ltd., London 1993.Google Scholar
  21. Massey, G.: Subsistence and Change: Lessons of Agropastoralism in Somalia. Westview Press. Boulder, Colorado 1987.Google Scholar
  22. Mc Gowan, R.; Johnston, L.; Waldstein, A.; Tillman, G.; Speed, J.: Irrigation water lifting in the Shebelli water management project. Project Report, Associates in Rural Development, Burlington, VT, USA 1986.Google Scholar
  23. Morton, J.: Pastoral decline and famine: the Beja case. In: Markakis, J. (ed.), Conflict and the Decline of Pastoralism in the Horn of Africa. The Macmillan Press Ltd., London 1993.Google Scholar
  24. Ornas, af A. H.: Pastoral and environmental security in east Africa. Disasters 14, 115–122 (1990)Google Scholar
  25. Poulsen, E.: The changing patterns of pastoral production in Somali society. In: Palsson, G. (ed.), From Water to World-Making: African Models and Arid Lands. The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Uppsala 1990.Google Scholar
  26. Riddell, J. C.: Land tenure issues in west African livestock and range development projects. Land Tenure Center Research Paper No. 77, Madison, WI, USA 1982.Google Scholar
  27. Roth, M.; Unruh, J.: Land title, tenure security, credit and investment in the Lower Shabelle region, Somalia. Land Tenure Center, Madison, WI 1990.Google Scholar
  28. Roth, M.; Lemel, H.; Bruce, J.; Unruh, J.: An analysis of land tenure and water allocation issues in the Shalambood irrigation zone, Somalia. Land Tenure Center project report, University of Wisconsin-Madison 1987.Google Scholar
  29. Salisbury, L.: The role of livestock in the Lower Shabelle. United States Agency for International Development — Somalia Mission, Mogadishu 1988.Google Scholar
  30. Samatar, A. I.: The State and Rural Transformation in Northern Somalia 1884–1986. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, USA 1989a.Google Scholar
  31. Samatar, M. S.: A Study on drought induced migration and its impact on land tenure and production in the inter-riverine region of Somalia. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome 1989b.Google Scholar
  32. Samatar, S. S.: The society and its environment. In: Metz, H. C. (ed.), Somalia, a Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 1993.Google Scholar
  33. Scudder, T.: River basin projects in Africa. Environment 31, 4–31 (1989)Google Scholar
  34. Storas, F.: Intention of implication — the effects of Turkana social organization on ecological balances. In: Baxter, P. T. W.; Hoog, R. (eds.), Property, Poverty, and People: Changing Rights in Property and Problems of Pastoral Development. University of Manchester, Manchester 1990.Google Scholar
  35. Swift, J.: Local customary institutions as the basis for natural resource management among the Boran pastoralists in northern Kenya. In: Leach, M.; Mearns, R. (eds.), Environmental Change: Development Challenges. IDS Bulletin, Sussex 1991.Google Scholar
  36. United States Agency for International Development (USAID): Somalia: Central Rangeland Development. AID project No. 649-0108, Washington, DC 1979.Google Scholar
  37. Unruh, J. D.: Resource sharing: small-holders and pastoralists in Shalambood, Lower Shabelle valley. In: Cassanelli, L.; Besteman, K. (eds.), Politics and Production in Southern Somalia, Westview Press Boulder (in press)Google Scholar
  38. White, C.: Changing animal ownership and access to land among the Wodaabe (Fulani) of Central Niger. In: Baxter, P. T. W.; Hoog, R. (eds.), Property, Poverty and People: Changing Rights in Property and Problems of Pastoral Development. Department of Social Anthropology and International Development Centre, Manchester 1990.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Unruh Jon D. 
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations