Groundwater quality and its monitoring in the Baltic States
- 38 Downloads
In the Baltic countries — Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — groundwater is the principal and only source of clean drinking water. Its safe yield is rather large — 6.7 mln m3/d. At present, consumption does not reach half of this amount. Therefore, the resources available will be sufficient for a rather remote future, provided that groundwater is not polluted. Under Soviet rule, insufficient attention was paid to ecological problems in the Baltic States. As a result, due to constantly increasing surface pollution, groundwater quality is decreasing. The topmost, unconfined aquifer is unfit for use, especially in many urbanized areas. Moreover, pollutants, especially organics, are starting to enter the lower, artesian aquifers. To determine and forecast groundwater quality, a monitoring system has been worked out. However, in order to protect groundwater, besides monitoring, new laws, regulations, and guarantees for their implementation are necessary.
KeywordsUrbanized Area Drinking Water Environmental Management Monitoring System Groundwater Quality
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Českanavičienė, S.: Geriamo vandens kokybė (Drinking water quality) (in Lithuanian). Lietuvos požeminės hidrosferos režimas ir apsauga, pp. 44–51. Vilnius, 1990.Google Scholar
- Hydrogeological maps of the Quaternary and pre-Quaternary deposits of the Soviet Baltic Republics (two maps, scale 1:500000, in English and Russian). Vilnius 1982.Google Scholar
- Juodkazis, V.; Klimas, A.: The change of the groundwater quality in the Baltic Artesian Basin. Vilnius 1991.Google Scholar
- Juodkazis, V.: Ecological hydrogeology: problems and ways of its solving them. Hydrogeological Mapping and Groundwater Monitoring in the Baltic States, pp. 7–10. Palanga 1992.Google Scholar
- Kadūnas, K.: Tyrimai lokaliuose plotuose (Investigations in local areas) (in Lithuanian). Lietuvos požeminės hidrosferos režimas ir apsauga (Resources, Regime and Protection of Groundwater in Lithuania), pp. 33–37. Vilnius 1990.Google Scholar
- Metsur, M.: Composition of water protection charts in rural areas. Hydrogeological Mapping and Groundwater Monitoring in the Baltic States, pp. 33–36. Palanga 1992.Google Scholar
- Savitskyj, L.; Kink, H.; Klimas, A: et al.: Metodicheskiye osnovy razvitiya seti nablyudatelnykh skvazhin pri issledovanii zagryazneniya podzemnykh vod Pribaltiki (Methodical principles for developing observation well network in the studies of groundwater pollution in the Baltic area) (in Russ.). In: Juodkazis, V. (ed.), Metody issledovaniya zagryazneniya podzemnykh vod Pribaltiki (Methods for Groundwater Pollution Studies in the Baltic Area) (in Russ.), pp. 6–9. Vilnius 1981.Google Scholar
- Zabulis, R.: Okhrana podzemnykh vod Litovskoi SSR ot zagryazneniya v raionakh krupnykh zhivotnovodcheskikh kompleksov (Protection of groundwater in the Lithuanian SSR from the pollution in the regions of large cattle-breeding farms). (in Russ.) Vilnius 1988.Google Scholar