, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 141–148 | Cite as

The “geo” of United States national strategy

  • Grover Bernie 
  • Bernard M. Baruch 


The paper discusses the geo dimensions of the new world order, with particular emphasis on the increasing role of geoeconomics, and its impact on US national strategy. While the paper uses the US experience to illustrate the growing importance of geoeconomic considerations, the issues raised have direct bearing on many other nations throughout the world.

US post Cold War strategy is determined by its three geo challenges. The most important is the geoeconomic challenge caused by the tri-polar division of the world along trading bloc lines, instant global communication and other technologies overcoming the constraints of physical geography, transnational corporations (TNCS) that are becoming supranational in character, and the emergence of a well educated global labor force. The geopolitical challenge is characterized by America's declining relative economic power and its traditional military allies having become economic competitors, while religious, ethnic, and regional tensions threaten its global interests. The third challenge is the military geography issue of effectively projecting power over distance, within the constraints of greatly reduced budgets and loss of overseas bases.


Global Communication National Strategy World Order Direct Bearing Transnational Corporation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aspin, L.: Public statement made at Industrial College of the Armed Forces. Washington 1993.Google Scholar
  2. Blank, S.; Hanson, E.; Black, R.: Multinationals in Contention: Responses at Governmental and International Level. The Conference Board, Inc, New York 1978.Google Scholar
  3. Bush, G.: National Security Strategy of the United States. US Government Printing Office, Washington 1993.Google Scholar
  4. Calleo, D.: American Power in a New World Economy. In: Becker, W.; Well, S. (eds.), Economics and World Power: An Assessment of American-Foreign Diplomacy since 1789. Columbia University Press, New York 1984.Google Scholar
  5. Carnevale, A.: America and the New Economy. US Department of Labor, Washington 1991.Google Scholar
  6. Carnegie Endowment National Commission: Changing Our Ways. Carnegie Endowment National Commission on America and the New World, Washington 1992.Google Scholar
  7. Center For Strategic and International Studies: Strengthening of American Commission First Report. Center For Strategic and International Studies, Washington 1992.Google Scholar
  8. Cheney, D.: Annual Report to the President and Congress. United States Government Printing Office, Washington 1992.Google Scholar
  9. Choates, P.: Agents of Influence — How Japan Manipulates America's Political and Economic System. Simon & Shuster, New York 1990.Google Scholar
  10. Cowhey, P.; Aronson, J.: A New Trade Order. Foreign Affairs 72-1 (1993)Google Scholar
  11. Competitiveness Policy Council: Building A Competitive America: First Annual Report to the President and to Congress. Washington 1992.Google Scholar
  12. Costello, R.: Bolstering Industrial Competitiveness: Report to the Secretary of Defense by the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition). Washington 1988.Google Scholar
  13. Defense Conversion Commission: Report of the Defense Conversion Commission. Washington 1993.Google Scholar
  14. Dertouzos, M.; Lester, R.; Solow, R.: Made in America: Regaining the Productive Edge. Harper Collins Publishers, New York 1990.Google Scholar
  15. Freedman, L.: The First Two Generations of Nuclear Strategists. In: Paret, P. (ed.), Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  16. Gray, C.: Geography and Grand Strategy. Comparative Strategy 10-4 (1991)Google Scholar
  17. Joint Chiefs of Staff: Basic National Defense Doctrine. Department of Defense, Washington, Washington 1991.Google Scholar
  18. Krugman, P.: The Age of diminished Expectations. The Washington Post (1991)Google Scholar
  19. Lall, S.: Transfer Pricing by Multinational Manufacturing Firms. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics (Aug 1973)Google Scholar
  20. Melman, S.: The Permanent War Economy: American Capitalism in Decline. Simon & Shulman, New York 1974.Google Scholar
  21. O'Sullivan, P.: Geopolitics. St Martin's Press, New York 1986.Google Scholar
  22. Powell, C.: National Military Strategy of the United States. US Government Printing Office, Washington 1992.Google Scholar
  23. Prestowitz, C.: Trading Places: How We Allowed Japan to Take the Lead. Basic Books, Inc, New York 1988.Google Scholar
  24. Reich, R.: The Work of Nations. Vintage Books, New York 1992.Google Scholar
  25. Schlesinger, J.: Quest For A Cold War. Foreign Affairs 72-1 (1993)Google Scholar
  26. Toth, J.: Unpublished manuscript. National Defense University, Washington 1992.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grover Bernie 
    • 1
  • Bernard M. Baruch 
    • 1
  1. 1.Industrial College of the Armed ForcesWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations