Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 13, Issue 11, pp 2497–2506 | Cite as

A study of the effect of injection speed on fibre orientation in simple mouldings of short glass fibre-filled polypropylene

  • P. F. Bright
  • R. J. Crowson
  • M. J. Folkes


The pattern of fibre orientation in injection moulded strips of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene has been studied using the technique of contact micro-radiography. It has been found that the fibre orientation in the core of the mouldings is very dependent on injection speed. High injection speed gives alignment of fibres transverse to the flow direction, while for very low speeds the fibres align parallel to the flow. The associated changes in topography of the mouldings have been studied using scanning electron microscopy. The rheological properties of both glass fibre-filled and unfilled polypropylene have been studied in a capillary rheometer. At low shear rates, the fibres cause a significant increase in viscosity, but at the shear rates likely to be encountered in injection moulding, the filled and unfilled melts have very similar viscosities. The rheological data can be used to interpret the pattern of fibre orientation in the mouldings.


Shear Rate Fibre Orientation Injection Moulding Mould Filling Capillary Rheometer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. E. THEBERGE, Plast. Des. Process 13 (1973).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. MAXWELL, Plastics Today 22 (1964) 9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. W. LUCIUS, Kunststoffe 63 (1973) 367.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. P. MURPHY, Mod. Plast. (US) 42 (1965) 127.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. A. HUNTER, Plast. Eng. 31 (1975) 24.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. R. SCHLICH, R. S. HAGAN, J. R. THOMAS, D.P. THOMAS and K. A. MUSSELMAN, Soc. Plast. Eng. J. 24 (1968) 43.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. C. FILBERT, ibid. 25 (1969) 65.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    V. KARPOV and M. KAUFMAN, Brit. Plast. 38 (1965) 498.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. KALISKE and H. SEIFERT, Plaste u. Kaut. 20 (1973) 837.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. W. DARLINGTON, P. L. McGINLEY and G. R. SMITH, J. Mater. Sci. 11 (1976) 877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. A. GOETTLER, Mod. Plast. (US) 47 (1970) 140.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. J. OWEN and K. WHYBREW, Plast. Rubb. 1 (1976) 231.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. M. ROWBOTHAM, S. A. E. Automotive Engineering Congress, Detroit, Michigan, 740264 (1974).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. P. THOMAS and R. S. HAGAN, S. P. I. Reinforced Plastics Division Conference, Chicago, Illinois (1966).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. V. YARLYKOV, M. L. FRIDMAN, Yu. G. YANOVSKII, E. I. FRENKIN, E. V. ZHIGANOVA, V. V. AMERIK and V. F. PETROVA, Int. Polymer Sci. Tech. 4 (1977) T/7.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y. CHAN, J. L. WHITE and Y. OYANAGI, Polymer Science and Engineering Report No. 96, University of Tennessee (1977).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Idem, Polymer Science and Engineering Report No. 102, University of Tennessee (1977).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. M. CHARRIER and J. M. RIEGER, Fibre Sci. Technol. 7 (1974) 161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    D. V. IVANYUKOV, V. V. AMERIK, E. V. ZHIGANOVA, N. P. SAMSONOVA, V. F. PETROVA, and A. V. KONYSHEVA, Soviet Plastics (1972) 53.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. BELL, J. Composite Mater. 3 (1969) 244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. NEWMAN and A. TREMENTOZZI, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 9 (1965) 3071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. R. SCHMIDT, Polymer Eng. Sci. 14 (1974) 797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Idem, Advances in Chemistry 142 (1975) 415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Z. TADMOR, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 18 (1974) 1753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. W. DARLINGTON and P. L. McGINLEY, J. Mater. Sci. 10 (1975) 906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. O. MASCHMEYER and C. T. HILL, Advances in Chemistry 134 (1973) 95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. M. McKELVEY, “Polymer Processing” (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York and London, 1962).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    H. L. GOLDSMITH and S. G. MASON, “Rheology”, Vol. 4, edited by F. R. Eirich (Academic Press, New York, 1967) p. 216.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    W. ROSE, Nature 191 (1961) 242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    H. L. GOLDSMITH and S. G. MASON, J. Colloid Sci. 17 (1962) 448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    G. B. JEFFERY, Proc. Roy. Soc. 102 (1922) 161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. J. FOLKES and P. LEECH, to be published (1978).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. F. Bright
    • 1
  • R. J. Crowson
    • 1
  • M. J. Folkes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MaterialsCranfield Institute of TechnologyCranfieldUK

Personalised recommendations