, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 337–344 | Cite as

The Indonesia-Malaysia-Singapore Growth Triangle: Sub-regional economic cooperation and integration

  • Ooi Giok-Ling 


Regional economic cooperation is being re-considered in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries comprising Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines and Brunei. The political leadership in each of the member countries appearsto have recognised that regional integration of their economies hold out better prospects for economic competitiveness and sustained growth. The diversity among the ASEAN states however, explains the mixed reaction to development schemes that have been premised on regional cooperation and economic integration. It is the paradox that while difference among the ASEAN countries account for some of the toughest competition faced by the region's newly industrialising economies, these differences have also been the reason behind integration and cooperation. This paper examines the growth triangle arrangement initiated by the government of Singapore and involving the Riau Islands in Indonesia and the state of Johor in the neighbouring country of Malaysia. The spatial and economic impact of Indonesia-Malaysia-Singapore Growth Triangle, as it is now officially called, is discussed. In spite of the addition of more growth triangles which have been identified following on this pioneering effort in the region, the discussion will highlight the limits to such cooperation at least, among the newly industrializing economies in the region.


Malaysia Indonesia Development Scheme Member Country Economic Cooperation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ooi Giok-Ling 
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Policy StudiesNational University of SingaporeSingapore

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