, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 441–454 | Cite as

Political and technical factors impinging on port operations: The case of Manchuria

  • Todd Daniel 
  • Zhang Lei 


Five readily discernible seminal events have moulded port-hinterland relations in Manchuria, and accordingly, have dictated the scale and scope of port operations. They are, in chronological order, the Treaty of Tientsin and the attendant opening of Newchang (Yingkou) to foreign trade in 1862, the lease to Russia in 1898 of the tip of the Liaodong peninsula and the founding thereon of the port of Dalny (Dalian), the seizure of Dalian by Japan in 19O5, the closure of Manchuria's ports to foreign trade with the accession of communist rule in China in 1949, and the reversal of that policy in no uncertain terms during the 1980s consequent upon China's conversion to “open port” thinking. Scarcely acknowledged because less perceptible, changes in the technology governing the characteristics and employment of ships have been equally critical in regulating port operations in this part of northern China. In particular, the twin driving forces leading to ship enlargement and specialisation have induced fundamental reorganisation of both waterfront and inland transfer facilities. These adaptations, abrupt and gradual, politically-inspired or technologically-motivated, are grist to the mill of this study.


Japan Russia Environmental Management Driving Force Foreign Trade 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Todd Daniel 
    • 1
  • Zhang Lei 
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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