Amino Acids

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 15–36 | Cite as

Syntheses of fluorinated amino acids: from the classical to the modern concept

  • V. Tolman
Review Article


A survey of the synthetic pathways leading to the fluorine-containing analogues of amino acids is given. From the great number of syntheses the typical examples are selected and divided into two groups: classical syntheses and the modern ones. The classical ammonolysis of halogeno acids and equivalent reactions are discussed as first, followed by a few examples of oxo → amino group transformation. Conversion of the oxo compounds into amino acids richer by one carbon atom is realized by the Strecker and hydantoin syntheses. For the prolongation by two carbons, the Erlenmeyer azlactone method and alkylation of CH-acidic esters are applied. The modern syntheses are represented by direct fluorination by elemental fluorine and other electrophilic fluorinating reagents. Further examples include the applications of the Yarovenko reagent, sulphur tetrafluoride and its derivative DAST. The use of trifluoropyruvates as the fluoro synthons is mentioned briefly. Finally, the examples of the amidocarboxylation method and the syntheses of diverseω-fluorinated methionines are shown.


Amino acids Fluoro analogues Synthesis 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Tolman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Organic ChemistryInstitute of Chemical TechnologyPraha 4Czech Republic

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