Die steels for the tools of heavy horizontal presses
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Steels 5KhNM2, 38Kh2N3M, 27Kh2N2MF, and 40Kh5MF developed at the Uralmash factory exhibit satisfactory assimilation into production, making it possible to manufacture in existing equipment large press tools made from castings of steel 5KhNM2, 38Kh2N3M, and 27Kh2N2MF weighing up to 80 tons, and of steel 40Kh5MF weighing up to 10 tons.
Steels 27Kh2N2MF and 40Kh5MF have reduced sensitivity to flake formation, and this makes it possible to obtain defect-free forgings from normal steel castings after moderate isothermal soaking.
The high stability of overcooled austenite for steels 38Kh2N3M, 27Kh2N2MF, and 40Kh5MF makes it possible to use normalization with tempering as a final heat treatment instead of quenching and tempering. Practice shows that this treatment provides the required level of mechanical properties and reliable long-term tool operation.
Disadvantages of steels 27Kh2N2MF and 40Kh5MF are a considerable tendency towards restoration of the large forged grain size during final heat treatment. Temperature-deformation limitations for the final forging operations developed at the Uralmash factory provide a normal grain size in large forgings.
Small tools made of steel 30Kh3NM3FTs exhibit high operating stability (70–100% in relation to the stability of a tool made of steel 3Kh2V8F). Consequently, steel 30Kh3NM3FTs may be used as a substitute for steel 3Kh2V8F.
KeywordsGrain Size Austenite Assimilation Operating Stability Require Level
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